Definition and function: Interleukins (abbreviation: IL) are cytokinetic messengers with a regulatory influence on the course of an immune reaction, with regard to cell growth, cell maturation (cell differentiation) and cell division of defense cells. The term comes from the ancient Greek language (inter = between, leukos = white, kinein = to move) and makes the function of interleukins clear: realization of the communication between the white blood cells (leukocytes) in an immune reaction.
Category In detail
What is a boreal coniferous forest? Definition: Boreale coniferous forest is the most northern vegetation zone in which trees grow. This type of coniferous forests runs like a belt over almost the entire northern hemisphere. The word "boreal" comes from the Latin language (Latin borealis) and means "northern".
Character Name: Biber Latin Name: Castoridae Class: Mammals Size: about 1m Weight: about 20kg Age: 6 - 10 years Appearance: dark brown Sex Diminorphism: yes Nutrition Type: Herbivore (herbivor) food: leaves, soft wood Distribution: Europe, North America , Asia native origin: Europe / Asia (European beaver), North America (Canadian beaver) sleep-wake cycle: twilight and nocturnal habitat: Flowing and standing waters natural enemies: birds of prey sexual maturity: with approx.
Characteristics Name: Aurochs Other names: Ur, Urus Latin name: Bos primigenius Class: mammals Size: 1,5 - 3m Length of body Weight: 600 - 1000kg Age: unknown Appearance: black to reddish brown Skin Sex-Diminiforme: Yes Diet type: Herbivore (herbivor) Food: Grass and other plant components Distribution: Asia, Europe, North Africa Original Origin: India Sleep-wake cycle: diurnal Habitat: probably open pastures Natural enemies: big cats Sexual maturity: unknown Mating season: unknown Tragzeit: ca.
Characteristics Name: Painted Lady Other names: / Latin name: Vanessa cardui Class: Insects Size: about 6 cm (wingspan) Weight:? Age: about 1 year Appearance: wing tips black with white spots and spots, forewings and hind wings orange to light brown Sex Diminorphism: No Diet type: Nectareater (nektarivor) Nutrition: Nectar Distribution: worldwide Original source: unknown Sleep / wake cycle: active in the daytime Habitat: Forest edges and grasslands natural enemies: various species of birds Sexual maturity: after complete development to the butterfly Mating time: July - August Oviposition: about 50 eggs Social behavior: loner Endangered species: no Further information on animals can be found in the Encyclopaedia.
Characteristics Name: Dachs Other names: European badger Latin name: Melinae Class: mammals Size: 50 - 80cm Weight: 5 - 20kg Age: 10 - 15 years Appearance: black and white striped head Sex Dimorphism: yes Diet type: omnivore Food: Distribution: Asia, Africa, Europe, North America Original Origin: Europe Sleep / wake cycle: nocturnal Habitat: wetlands, deciduous and mixed forests, wetlands Natural enemies: fox, wolf Sexual maturity: with the second / third year of mating:?
Characteristics Name: Dodo Other names: Dronte, Doudo, Dudu Latin name: Raphus cucullatus Class: Birds Size: about 1m Weight: up to 20kg Age:? Appearance: blue-gray plumage Sex dimorphism:? Nutrition Type: Fruiteater (frugivor) Food: Fruits Distribution: extinct Original Origin: Mauritius, La Réunion Sleep / wake cycle:?
Characteristics Name: Eel Other names: Freshwater Eels Latin name: Anguillidae Class: bony fish Size: 50 - 200cm Weight: up to 10kg Age: 8 - 20 years Appearance: brown Sex Dimorphism: yes Nutrition Type: fish eater (piscivor) Food: small fish, crayfish, Worms Origin: World-wide Origin: probably Europe Sleep / wake cycle: nocturnal Habitat: rivers and seas Natural predators: Predatory species Sexuality: 8 - 12 years Mating season:?
Characteristics Name: Flamingo Latin name: Phoenicopteridae Class: Birds Size: 100 - 150cm Weight: 2 - 3,5kg Age: 10 - 30 years Appearance: white-pink Gender dimorphism: yes Nutrition type: plankton filter (planktivor) Food: plankton, crustaceans, insect larvae Distribution: Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America Original source: unknown Sleep / wake cycle: nocturnal and nocturnal Habitat: salty lakes Natural enemies: birds of prey Sexual maturity: with 2 - 5 years Mating season: January - March Incidence: 26 - 30 days clutch size: 1 - 2 eggs Social behavior: colony-forming Endangered species: no You will find further profiles of animals in the Encyclopaedia of Animals.
Characteristics Name: Falcon Latin name: Falco Class: Birds Size: 20 - 60cm Weight: 200 - 1200g Age: 6 - 15 years Appearance: Species Sex dimorphism: Yes Type of diet: carnivore Food: Rodents, small mammals, songbirds Distribution: worldwide Sleep-wake-rhythm: diurnal Habitat: nonspecific natural enemies: / Sexual maturity: from about the second resp.
Characteristics Name: Degu Other names: Shrub Rat Latin name: Octodon degus Class: Mammals Size: 11 - 16cm Weight: 200 - 280g Age: 3 - 8 years Appearance: brownish color variants Sex dimming: Yes Diet type: Earthen (granivor) Food: Seeds Distribution: Argentina, Chile native origin: South America sleep-wake cycle: diurnal habitat: semi-deserts natural predators: birds of prey, fox sexual maturity: at 6 months mating season: August - October gestation period: 3 months litter size: 1 - 10 juveniles social behavior: family group Endangered species: No You can find further profiles of animals in the Encyclopaedia.
Characteristics Name: Haflinger Other names: Aveligneser Latin name: Equus ferus caballus (domestic horse) Class: mammals Size: 140 - 155cm (withers) Weight: 400 - 600kg Age: 20 - 30 years Appearance: so-called chestnut color, white longhairs Sex dimorphism: Yes Diet type: Herbivore Food: Grasses and hay Distribution: breeding horse worldwide Original origin: South Tyrol Sleep / wake cycle: active in the daytime Habitat: originally mountainous natural enemies: / Sexual maturity: approximately after 12 - 24 months mating season: throughout the year gestation period: 12 months Litter Size: 1 young Social Behavior: Herd Animal Critically Endangered: No You can find more profiles of animals in the Encyclopaedia.
Characteristics Name: Fire salamander Latin name: Salamandra salamandra Class: amphibians Size: 12 - 20cm Weight: 25 - 40g Age: 15 - 30 years Appearance: yellow spots on black skin Sex dimorphism: yes Nutrition type: insectivore (insectivore) Food: beetles, earthworms, Spiders Distribution: Europe, North Africa Original Origin: Central Europe Sleep / wake cycle: nocturnal Habitat: Forests natural enemies: / Sexual maturity: from about the age of four Mating time: June - September Number of offspring: 30 - 50 Larvae Social behavior:?
Characteristics Name: Grizzly bear Other names: Grizzly Latin name: Ursus arctos horribilis Class: mammals Size: up to 3m Weight: 100 - 500kg Age: 15 - 30 years Appearance: mostly brown coat as primary color with gray hairs Sex Diminis: Yes Diet type: Omnivorous ( omnivor) food: carrion, berries, fish, insects, small mammals, nuts, roots Origin: Eurasia Sleep-wake cycle: nocturnal and nocturnal Habitat: prefers forests and semi-open landscapes natural enemies: / Sexual maturity: approximately the fifth year of life mating season: May - July gestation period: 2 months litter size: 1 - 4 juveniles social behavior: Lonely endangered species: Yes You can find further profiles of animals in the Encyclopaedia of Animals.
Characteristics Name: Hallimasch Other names: Halawatsch, Stuppling Latin name: Armillaria mellea (Honey Yellow Hallimasch) Fungus family: Physalacriaceae Number of species: approx. 40 species Distribution: northern hemisphere Toxicity: poisonous toxins: unknown Habitat: mostly directly on the tree Appearance: yellow (depending on the species also other colors) Size: Hat (3-15cm diameter), stem (5-15cm) Use: / Note All information is for educational purposes only and is not suitable for identifying edible mushrooms / toadstools.
Character Name: Shark Latin Name: Selachii Class: Cartilaginidae Size: 4 - 6m Weight: up to 2000kg Age: 15 - 30 years Appearance: gray-white Sex Dimorphism: Yes Nutrition Type: Carnivore Food: Fish, seals, sea lions Distribution: world-wide origin: unknown sleep-wake-rhythm: diurnal habitat: ocean natural enemies: / sexual maturity: first with 10 - 15 years mating season: unknown gestation period: 10 - 20 months (species-dependent) litter size: 1 young social behavior: solitary / swarm animal of extinction threatened: Yes You can find further profiles of animals in the Encyclopaedia of Animals.
Characteristics Name: Perch Other names: Sea bass, jade bass, sea bass Latin name: Perca fluviatilis Class: fish Size: 20 - 40 cm Weight: 500 - 2000 g Age: 12 years Appearance: reddish abdominal and pectoral fins Sex dimorphism: no Nutrition type: predominantly fish eater (piscivor) Food: Fish, Insects, Crabs, Plankton Distribution: Europe, South Africa, Australia Primary Origin: Europe Sleep / wake cycle: diurnal Habitat: freshwater lakes, rivers Natural enemies: predatory species Sexual maturity: around 2 - 4 years Mating season: March - June oviposition: up to 300.
Characteristics Name: Domestic dog Latin name: Canis lupus familiaris Class: Mammals Size: 20 - 85cm Weight: 1 - 70kg Age: 7 - 18 years Appearance: very different depending on the species Sex dimorphism: No Diet type: carnivore Food: mostly meat Distribution : worldwide original origin: unknown sleep-wake-rhythm: diurnal habitat: close to humans natural enemies: no sexual maturity: ca.
Characteristics Name: Lobster Latin name: Homarus Class: Higher crayfish Size: up to 60cm Weight: 1 - 6kg Age: 30 - 100 years Appearance: orange-black shell Sex dimorphism: yes Food: crustaceans, clams, starfish Distribution: Atlantic, Mediterranean Sleep Guardian rhythm: nocturnal Habitat: seabed natural enemies:?
Introduction to the planet Jupiter Jupiter is one of four gas planets and at the same time the largest planet in the solar system. The upper layers of Jupiter are 99.9% hydrogen and helium. With increasing proximity to the interior of the planet, the chemical elements become liquid due to the increasing pressure.
Characteristics Name: Deer Latin name: Cervinae Class: mammals Size: 1 - 3m Weight: up to 800kg Age: 6 - 14 years Appearance: dependent on sex Gender dimorphism: yes Nutrition type: herbivore Food: leaves, grasses, tree fruits Distribution: Asia, North America, Europe native origin: unknown sleep-wake-rhythm: diurnal habitat: non-specific natural enemies: Wolf sexual maturity: about the age of two mating season:?