12.7: Test yourself - Biology

12.7: Test yourself - Biology

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12.7: Test yourself

Vaccinia Virus DNA Replication Occurs in Endoplasmic Reticulum-enclosed Cytoplasmic Mini-Nuclei

Vaccinia virus (vv), a member of the poxvirus family, is unique among most DNA viruses in that its replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. Although this viral process is known to occur in distinct cytoplasmic sites, little is known about its organization and in particular its relation with cellular membranes. The present study shows by electron microscopy (EM) that soon after initial vv DNA synthesis at 2 h postinfection, the sites become entirely surrounded by membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Complete wrapping requires ∼45 min and persists until virion assembly is initiated at 6 h postinfection, and the ER dissociates from the replication sites. [ 3 H]Thymidine incorporation at different infection times shows that efficient vv DNA synthesis coincides with complete ER wrapping, suggesting that the ER facilitates viral replication. Proteins known to be associated with the nuclear envelope in interphase cells are not targeted to these DNA-surrounding ER membranes, ruling out a role for these molecules in the wrapping process. By random green fluorescent protein-tagging of vv early genes of unknown function with a putative transmembrane domain, a novel vv protein, the gene product of E8R, was identified that is targeted to the ER around the DNA sites. Antibodies raised against this vv early membrane protein showed, by immunofluorescence microscopy, a characteristic ring-like pattern around the replication site. By electron microscopy quantitation the protein concentrated in the ER surrounding the DNA site and was preferentially targeted to membrane facing the inside of this site. These combined data are discussed in relation to nuclear envelope assembly/disassembly as it occurs during the cell cycle.

How to Study for Biology

This article was co-authored by Meredith Juncker, PhD. Meredith Juncker is a PhD candidate in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. Her studies are focused on proteins and neurodegenerative diseases.

There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.

wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 37 testimonials and 88% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status.

This article has been viewed 359,760 times.

Although biology is a mandatory class, it doesn't have to be a painful one to study for and get through. It is a subject that builds upon itself, so it's essential to understand the basic concepts before you can understand the more complex ones. Learning the vocabulary associated with biology and staying on top of the material are the best ways to improve your comprehension of biology and be ready for every exam.

Science Practice Challenge Questions

The gene SLC24A5 encodes an antiporter membrane protein that exchanges sodium for calcium (R. Ginger et al., JBC, 2007). This process has a role in the synthesis of the melanosomes that cause skin pigmentation. A mutation in this gene affecting a single amino acid occurs in humans. The homozygous mutant gene is found in 99% of humans with European origins. Both the wild type and mutant display codominance.

A. Representing the wild-type form of the gene as +/+ and the mutant form of the gene as m/m for two homozygous parents, construct a Punnett square for this cross using the first grid below. Annotate your representation to identify the phenotypes with high (H), intermediate (I), and low (L) melanosome production. Use the second grid to represent an F2 generation from the offspring of the first cross. Use annotation to show the phenotype.

B. Draw sister chromatids at anaphase II for both parents in the F1 generation and annotate your drawing to identify each genotype of the gametes using the cells of the Punnett square.

C. Explain which of Mendel’s laws is violated by codominance.

D. Suppose that these data were available to evaluate the claim that the wild-type and mutant forms of SLC24A5 are codominant:

Complete the table. Explain the values expected in terms of the genotype of the offspring.

Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disorder in which lipids with very high molecular weights are not metabolized and accumulate within cells. Accumulation of these fats in the brain damages the myelin that surrounds nerves. This progressive disease has two causes: an autosomal recessive allele, which causes neonatal ALD, and a mutation in the ABCD1 gene located on the X chromosome. A controversial treatment is the use of Lorenzo’s oil, which is expensive despite this treatment, neurological degradation persists in many patients. Gene therapy as a potential treatment is currently in trials but is also very costly.

An infant patient exhibits symptoms of neonatal ALD, which are difficult to distinguish from the X-linked form of the disease. The infant’s physician consults electronic health records to construct a pedigree showing family members who also presented symptoms similar to ALD. The pedigree is shown in this diagram. The infant patient is circled. Symbols for males (o) and females (m) are filled when symptoms are present.

A. Using the pedigree, explain which form of ALD (neonatal or X-linked) is present in the infant.

B. Sharing of digital records among health providers is one method proposed to improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care in the U.S. The privacy of electronic health records is a concern. Pose three questions that must be addressed in developing policies that balance the costs of treatments and diagnoses, patient quality of life, and risks to individual privacy.

Two genes, A and B, are located adjacent to each other (linked) on the same chromosome. In the original cross (P0), one parent is homozygous dominant for both traits (AB), whereas the other parent is recessive (ab).

Characteristic Alleles Chromosome
Seed color yellow (I) / green (i) 1
Seed coat & flowers colored (A) / white (a) 1
Mature pods smooth (V) / wrinkled (v) 4
Flower stalk from leaf axils (Fa) / umbellate at top of plant (fa) 4
Height > 1 m (Le) /
  1. Describe the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes in F1.
  2. Describe the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes when F1 is crossed with the ab parent.
  3. Describe the distribution of genotypes and phenotypes when F1 is crossed with the AB parent.
  4. Explain the observed non-Mendelian results in terms of the violation of the laws governing Mendelian genetics.

Gregor Mendel’s 1865 paper described experiments on the inheritance of seven characteristics of Pisum sativum shown in the first column in the table below. Many years later, based on his reported outcomes and analysis of the inheritance of a single characteristic, Mendel developed the concepts of genes, their alleles, and dominance. These concepts are defined in the second column of the table using conventional symbols for the dominant allele for each characteristic. Even later, the location of each of these genes on one of the seven chromosomes in P. sativum were determined, as shown in the third column.

A. Before the acceptance of what Mendel called “factors” as the discrete units of inheritance, the accepted model was that the traits of progeny were “blended” traits of the parents. Evaluate the evidence provided by Mendel’s experiments in disproving the blending theory of inheritance.

B. Mendel published experimental data and analysis for two experiments involving the inheritance of more than a single characteristic. He examined two-character inheritance of seed shape and seed color. He also reported three-character inheritance of seed shape, seed color, and flower color. Evaluate the evidence provided by the multiple-character experiments. Identify which of the following laws of inheritance depend upon these multiple-character experiments for support:

  1. During gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each other so that each gamete carries only one allele for each gene.
  2. Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
  3. Some alleles are dominant, whereas others are recessive. An organism with at least one dominant allele will display the effect of the dominant allele.
  4. All three laws can be inferred from the single-character experiments.

C. As shown in the table above, some chromosomes contain the gene for more than one of the seven characteristics Mendel studied, for example, seed color and flowers. The table below shows, with filled cells above the dashed diagonal line, the combinations of characteristics for which Mendel reported results. In the cells below the dotted diagonal line, identify with an X each cell where deviations from the law or laws identified in part B might be expected.

D. Explain the reasons for the expected deviations for those combinations of characteristics identified in part C.

E. In one of the experiments reported by Mendel, deviations from the law identified in part B might be expected. Explain how the outcomes of this experiment were consistent with Mendel’s laws.

A dihybrid cross involves two traits. A cross of parental types AaBb and AaBb can be represented with a Punnett square:

This representation clearly organizes all of the possible genotypes and reveals the 9:3:3:1 distribution of phenotypes and a 4×4 grid of 16 cells. Expressed as a fraction of the 16 possible genotypes of the offspring, the phenotypic ratio describes the probability of each phenotype among the offspring: 3 (AA, Aa, aA) × 3 (BB, bB, Bb)/16 = 9/16 3 (AA, Aa, aA) × 1 (bb) /16 = 3/16 1 (aa) × 3 (BB, bB, Bb) = 3/16 and 1 (aa) × 1 (bb) = 1/16.

A. Using the probability method, calculate the likelihood of these phenotypes from each dihybrid cross:

  • recessive in the gene with alleles A and a from the cross AaBb × aabb
  • dominant in both genes from the cross AaBb × aabb
  • recessive in both genes from the cross AaBb × aabb
  • recessive in either gene from the cross AaBb × aabb

A Punnett square representation of a trihybrid cross, such as the self-cross of AaBbCc, is more cumbersome because there are eight columns and rows (2×2×2 ways to choose parental genotypes) and 64 cells. A less tedious representation is to calculate the number of each type of genotype in the offspring directly by counting the unique permutations of the letters representing the alleles. For example, the probability of the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc is 3 (AA, Aa, aA) × 3 (BB, Bb, bB) × 3 (CC, Cc, cC)/64 = 27/64.

B. Using the probability method, calculate the likelihood of these phenotypes from each trihybrid cross:

  • recessive in all traits from the cross AaBbCc × aabbcc
  • recessive in the gene with alleles C and c and dominant in the other two traits from the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc
  • dominant in the gene with alleles A and a and recessive in the other two traits from the cross AaBbcc × AaBbCc

C. The probability method is an easy way to calculate the likelihood of each particular phenotype, but it doesn’t simultaneously display the probability of all possible phenotypes. The forked line representation described in the text allows the entire phenotypic distribution to be displayed. Using the forked line method, calculate the probabilities in a cross between AABBCc and Aabbcc parents:

12.7: Test yourself - Biology

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12.7: Test yourself - Biology

Study Tips for Biology Classes

TIP Sheet

Studying for biology classes is very different from studying for history or English classes. Strategies that worked well in those classes may not work well here. The following are study strategies that are geared toward students in biology classes. You probably won't have time to try all of these strategies, but pick a few that you think may help and try those. The key is to find as many different ways to work with the information that you are given.

Before Class

  • It's very important that you read the text before class but HOW you read the book makes all the difference.
    • If you don't have time to read the whole chapter, at least look at the pictures (and read the captions). Biology is a visual subject and many of the concepts are best explained as a picture.
    • Don't try to memorize the whole chapter. Many instructors will not use ALL the information in the text, and will add information that is not in the text. The instructor will let you know which parts of the chapter are most relevant.

    During Class

    • Come prepared! Bring your book as well as any note sets / review sheets that the instructor provides. You can often save yourself time if you take notes in the book or on the note sets rather than in class. One of the most common difficulties in science classes is that it's difficult to keep up with the speed of lectures. If you have the pictures from the book (or photocopies) you will be able to take notes much more quickly.
      • If you do take notes in your book or somewhere else – make sure to include that in your notes. Write something like "see fig 3.5" in your notes so that you know when to look at the pictures in the book.
      • If the instructor writes it on the board – put it in your notes.
      • If the instructor says "this is important" or something similar – put it in your notes.
      • If the instructor refers to something in the book – write down the page or figure number so you can go back to it later.
      • Develop a system for taking notes. There are official methods for taking notes – or you can develop your own. If there are sets of words that are used a lot in class – make up a symbol for them that you will remember. (You may want to make a list of these symbols in case you forget.)
        • You can try working on your note-taking system by watching a TV show or movie and taking notes.
        • Ask the instructor to repeat the information.
        • Leave a space and move on – come back and fill in what you missed later.
        • Don't miss the next point because you were asking your neighbor about the last point.
        • Most instructors won't mind you asking for clarification in class. It's often embarrassing to be the one asking the questions – but your fellow students will be glad you did. (They probably have the same question, and were just too shy to ask.)
        • Asking questions does not make you seem like a dumb student – it makes you seem like an interested student.

        In a Lab Class

        • Read the lab for that day and make sure you fully understand what you are doing in class. In most lab classes, you will be expected to be self-sufficient in completing the assignments, so you do need to understand what is expected of you that day. As an added bonus, if you are organized and have a plan – you may even finish early. On the other hand, if you spend your lab time figuring out what you are supposed to do, you may not finish the lab.
        • Divide and conquer. You may not have time to do all parts of the experiment on your own. Part of the skills that a laboratory class is meant to teach is how to work together. However, make sure you understand all parts of the experiment, even if you didn't actually conduct it yourself.

        After Class

        • Rewrite your notes. This is time-consuming but does two things. It gives you a chance to review what you covered in class and make sure you didn't miss anything. It also gives you a well-organized set of notes to study for the test.
          • This strategy works best if the notes are redone shortly after class.

          Studying for the test

          • Write your own test. If you had 20 (or 50, or 100) questions that you could ask about this information – what would you ask? What topics are the most important? How would you ask questions about each of these topics? Knowing what will be on a test is a difficult skill – but, with practice, you should be able to figure it out.
          • Find a study group. This technique doesn't work for everyone, but it can be very effective. Talk through the subject matter and make sure everyone understands it, or quiz each other. This is a great resource to make sure that you aren't misunderstanding the concepts.

          Strategies for memory-based tests
          The strategies below are particularly useful for classes or topics that have a lot of vocabulary or names.

          • Flashcards, an old favorite. The key to flashcards is to write VERY LITTLE on the card. Some students even cut the cards in half so they don't write too much on them.
            • Some tips for how to make good flashcards:
              • One side of the card should have one vocabulary word on it and the other side should have a definition or picture
              • Alternatively, you could write one question on the front side, and the answer on the back.
              • Make sure to study the flashcards in both directions (looking at the word and saying the definition, and looking at the definition and saying the word).
              • Keep them with you. Study them as you wait in line or as the microwave is going. The key here is – a little studying more often is better than a lot of studying for a short time.
              • Make piles with your flashcards. A pile for the information you know and a pile for the information you forgot. Then take the second pile and go through it again – and again, put the cards into two piles. This way you spend more time studying the cards that you are having a difficult time with.
              • If you can't afford a coloring book (they can be a bit pricey), photocopy or trace the pictures from the textbook - then color and label them. (Make a few copies of these pictures and remove the labels.)
              • Look at the list of terms and identify all of them on the object.
              • Without looking at a list, point to and name all the parts of the object that you need to know. Then, check the list.
              • Without looking at a list, point to and write down the names of all the parts of the object that you need to know. Then check the list. Remember, on the test you will have to write (and spell the word), not say it out loud.
              • Have someone point to a part and you write it on a sheet of paper. This is the best way to study because this is how most lab practicals are set up. If you can't find another student to quiz you, ask the tutors or your instructor.

              Study strategies for concept-based tests
              These strategies work best for classes and topics that discuss processes.

              • The following is a method to help you learn a difficult process (for example, if you have to learn all the steps of aerobic respiration). When you are comfortable with one of these steps, move on to the next level of difficulty:
                • Draw, trace, or photocopy a picture of the process from your book (remove the label). Write the vocabulary words that relate to the process on another sheet of paper. Be able to put the right term in the right place on the picture.
                • Now try to label the picture without the terms in front of you.
                • Now look at the list of vocabulary words. Put the words in order and draw the picture. Color-code the different steps of the process.
                • Now take a blank sheet of paper and draw the picture from scratch, without any words in front of you. Label the picture you have drawn.
                • Now take a blank sheet of paper and draw the process backwards. (Hey, why not!)
                • You can also take all the parts of the process and put them on note cards. Now, use the note cards to explain the process.
                • Or, you can buy play-doh and build a model of the process. (It doesn't really matter how you do this – but you need to take the process and break it down into smaller parts that you can understand and put together.)
                • Explaining the process out-loud to yourself. Hearing it may help you remember.
                • Explain the process to a classmate and ask them for feedback.
                • Explain the process to your instructor. This way you can be sure that you didn't miss anything.

                There are many other good study strategies. Talk to your classmates or teacher if you want more ideas.

                This TIP Sheet has been provided courtesy of Butte College Biology Instructor, Suzanne Wakim.

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                In the first week, we will explore the cellular, chemical, hormonal, anatomical and physiological components the of brain that regulate cognition, emotions, and behaviors. [click to learn more]

                Biochemistry, The Magic that Keeps Us Alive

                In this course, we will unveil the chemical “magic” that dictates when and how the human body behaves, in its everyday grind to keep us alive. Every biological process in our body, from the most basic function of glucose utilization to complicated pathways of drug metabolism, heavily depends on basic concepts of chemistry in order to function. Without understanding the chemical basis of these interactions, it is almost impossible to fathom the incredibly diverse processes that are constantly occurring in the body.

                This course provides us an introduction to the chemical and cellular basis of biochemistry. [click to learn more]

                Factory to Faucet: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

                Have you ever wondered what happens to the fish after an oil spill? Or maybe you’ve heard stories on the news about pollution and wondered how it got to where it is? In today’s world, understanding pollution’s impact on the environment is important for keeping both human and animal communities healthy. Environmental contaminants from the world’s past and present industries can have important effects on humans and animals that are challenging to understand and solve. [click to learn more]

                Molecular Biology and Biochemistry: From DNA to Enzymes

                Molecular biology and biochemistry are two closely related fields where the properties of key biological molecules, such as proteins and DNA, and how they interact with each other in living organisms are studied. Research in these areas has become so successful at explaining living processes that it is used in almost all areas of the life sciences from medicine to the study of plants. Researchers play an integral role in the discovery of drugs that help prevent and cure diseases. [click to learn more]

                Organic and Biochemistry: Key Pathways to Success for the Pre-Med Student

                Organic and biochemistry are the foundation sciences for the life sciences discipline. Students hoping to have a medical career need to have a strong foundation in chemistry. The MCAT exams given to college students hoping to enter medical, dental, or veterinary schools contain a number of sections devoted to general, organic, and biochemistry.

                The course begins with the study of organic compounds and concentrates on their structure and reactions. [click to learn more]

                Introduction to Statistical Programming

                We will use the statistical programming language R to solve problems and analyze and graphically represent data. R is a popular programming language for statistics and data mining, and is a great first language to learn.

                Advances in computing power have enabled scientists to amass huge amounts of data on everything from genetics to climate science, but there is a need for someone to make sense of this data. In this class we will learn how to perform basic statistical analysis and visualize data using the statistical software R. [click to learn more]

                Alternative Energy Engineering: An Introduction

                One of the most pressing issues of modern times is how we will satisfy our future energy needs and what influence this might have on global warming. This course pursues developing intuitive insights into the benefits and limitations of various approaches to energy generation, and how to differentiate between hype, scientific analysis, and political interference. This course will provide a strong foundation for anyone interested in pursuing energy studies and their connection to environmental impact and human nature.

                The course will examine the advances made since the advent of the steam engine by people who increasingly exploited energy sources to do work for them, especially in manufacturing and transportation. [click to learn more]

                Biomedical Engineering: The Smart Design of Medical Implants and Devices

                Are you passionate about innovative approaches to improving human health? Biomedical engineers apply principles of biology, medicine, and science, along with problem-solving skills and critical thinking, to a broad spectrum of problems, from designing regenerative medicine and new methods of drug delivery to micro-devices and gene therapy.

                In this course students will explore how the field of biomedical engineering applies math and science fundamentals to the development of replacement tissues, organs, and devices. [click to learn more]

                Engineering Biomedical Systems

                Have you ever wondered how pacemakers are made, or how cartilage is grown for joint repair? In this course, you will learn how biomedical engineers, specialists in combining the principles of human biology and engineering, develop devices and tissue-engineered technologies that improve, rehabilitate, and even save lives!

                The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to biomedical engineering analysis, specifically relating to device design and tissue engineering approaches. [click to learn more]

                Introduction to Engineering and Design

                Are you considering a career in engineering? Are you fascinated by what engineers do? In this course, high school students will be given the opportunity to experience engineering and design first hand. Students will gain an understanding of the fundamentals of the engineering design process, a grasp of the various fields of engineering, and an appreciation of the far-reaching impacts of engineering.

                A major focus of this class will be the engineering design process. [click to learn more]

                Materials Engineering: A Revolution in the Making

                What do you think will be the greatest, coolest invention of this century? Many of the greatest scientists and technologists believe that this will be in the field of Materials research: "of new materials that have amazing properties,” and what’s more, “are capable of changing themselves to suit their requirements.” Though we know of an amazing array of materials, there are only four basic ones--Polymers, Ceramics, Metals, and Composites. [click to learn more]

                Materials Science and Engineering: Designing for Society's Needs

                Are you interested in learning more about the materials that surround our everyday lives? How might newly developed, advanced materials positively impact society?

                In this course, you will explore the mathematical and scientific fundamentals behind the field of materials science and engineering. You will explore the current state of the art in engineering design as you test and formulate biomaterials, nanomaterials, and other advanced materials for a wide range of materials science applications.

                Time commitment: Your course will open on a Monday, two days in advance of the Wednesday course start date to give you time to get to know Canvas (Brown's learning management system), review course expectations and strategies for your success, learn about your instructor, and help us to learn a bit about you. [click to learn more]

                Renewable Energy Engineering: Wind and Solar Power

                In this course, you will explore some of the science, math, and technology that is used to extract energy from renewable resources.

                The demand for energy is expected to grow 30% by 2040. Today, most of the energy harvested originates from non-renewable sources. What role can engineers play in developing renewable energy technology to meet the anticipated demand? What does it take to become an engineer in this field? [click to learn more]

                Applying Environmental Leadership To The Global Climate Crisis

                Young leaders are rising up all over the world to express something of great importance - our planet is in turmoil and we must take immediate action to save it. The impacts of global climate change are increasing every minute and, sadly, are unequally impacting the world’s most vulnerable populations.

                This course combines concepts in environmental studies and leadership, with a mission to develop socially responsible leaders who can contribute to global efforts to slow the impacts of climate change.

                Socially responsible leadership is a lifelong pursuit that requires ongoing learning and reflection. [click to learn more]

                Marine Ecology: Studying and Safeguarding Our Most Vulnerable Ecosystems

                The great marine biologist, Sylvia Earle, says, “With every drop of water you drink, every breath you take, you’re connected to the sea. No matter where on Earth you live.” With effects of global climate change on the rise, it is essential that we take action to work towards protecting the most vulnerable ecosystems on this planet. Our marine ecosystems need protection and that will take a new generation of leaders with the passion and skills to rise to the challenge. [click to learn more]

                Marine Life in the Balance: Protecting a Changing Estuary Environment

                Estuaries, like Narragansett Bay, are considered to be one of the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems on the planet. Today, they are threatened by the challenges of climate change, which, scientists are discovering, are causing changes in salt marsh habitat and water quality. Do you want to know what a career as a field scientist includes? In this course, students will gain an understanding of how estuaries are the foundations of life in marine systems. [click to learn more]

                Nature as Our Teacher: Learning Skills to Shape Change

                Adaptive, resilient, interdependent, fecund, fractal are all traits that describe elements and patterns found within nature, but what do these words and patterns have to teach us about shaping change within the environmental movement? Nature has always had it all figured out- sustainability, healing, growth, balance, community. Using wisdom from the book “Emergent Strategy” by adrienne maree brown and works of other visionaries, organizers, and scientists, this course will position nature as our teacher, exploring phenomena and patterns within ecosystems in an effort to find inspiration and ponder how to lead and imagine a way forward in the face of intersectional global crises.

                Youth are at the forefront of the environmental movement, which is a movement in the pursuit of justice and learning about relationships with one another and nature. [click to learn more]

                Research Methods in Marine Science

                During this two-week course, students will be introduced to many diverse habitats that together create the dynamic estuarine ecosystem of Narragansett Bay, the multiple branches of marine science, current research and methods employed in the field, and scientific peer-reviewed journal articles. Students will be introduced to real world research methods utilized by marine scientists to study biotic and abiotic aspects of Narragansett Bay and marine habitats globally.

                Coursework will include viewing online presentations from science faculty, researchers, and Save the Bay staff, focusing on the methods and techniques used in their day-to-day work, data collection and analysis, and reading and interpreting peer-reviewed journal articles. [click to learn more]

                Use Your Voice: Addressing Climate Change Through Science Communication

                The science is clear: the world is entering a period of ecological and climatic disruption. The science is, however, also incredibly complex. Data retrieval, analyses and interpretation, climate systems and the impacts of changes within those systems are all intricate. Climate change challenges us as individuals psychologically, intellectually, and practically. Climate change is also exacerbating systemic inequalities and challenging our patterns of consumerism and thus our social and economic ideals outright. [click to learn more]

                You Can’t Spell “Earth” Without “Art”: Art & Environmental Leadership

                How can art not just look good, but do good? How can science not just help us know, but help us act and feel? This course combines concepts in environmental studies, ecologically-based art, and leadership, with a mission to develop socially responsible and creative leaders.

                Throughout history, art has reflected our relationship with nature—from cave etchings, landscape paintings, wildlife photography, and land art, to today’s climate change artwork. [click to learn more]

                Spanish through Social Justice

                Language class: Students in this class will develop fundamental communication skills in Spanish at the intermediate high to advanced level. Classes are taught completely in Spanish and emphasis is placed on oral expression and listening comprehension. Through discussions and exercises centered around socio-cultural topics that define contemporary Spain and Latin America, students will also be able to strengthen their abilities in grammar and vocabulary and have a rewarding experience while navigating a Spanish speaking world. [click to learn more]

                Habitable Worlds: Possible Places for Life in the Solar System and Beyond

                Does life exist anywhere else in the universe, or even in our own Solar System? If you have ever looked at the sky and wondered if habitable worlds like (or unlike) ours exist elsewhere, then this is the class for you. This course explores possible habitats for life on Mars, asteroids, the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and exoplanets (planets around other stars), including the TRAPPIST 1 system. Along the way, you will learn about the latest NASA missions, like the Perseverance rover studying Mars, the Cassini spacecraft studying Saturn, the Kepler telescope that hunted for planets around other stars, and the soon-to-be launched James Webb Space Telescope.

                This course focuses on the places where life might exist elsewhere in the Solar System or on exoplanets. [click to learn more]

                Medicine in Action: A View into the Life of a Medical Student

                Have you ever wondered what it is like to be a medical student? In this course, you will learn about the fundamentals of the practice of medicine through two exciting weeks of immersive activities. You and your peers will explore the physiology of the human body in an online classroom setting, and experience an in-depth look at the anatomy of organs in the virtual anatomy lab. You will step inside the shoes of a doctor, learning how to conduct a medical interview and perform an extensive physical exam. [click to learn more]

                Introduction to Nanotechnology

                Introduction to Nanotechnology provides a broad overview of nanotechnology, discussing the fundamental science of nanotechnology and its applications to engineering, biomedical, and environmental fields. We will discuss the interdisciplinary nature of nanotechnology and how the different basic sciences merge to create the field.

                The course provides a background of the understanding, motivation, implementation, impact, future, and implications of nanotechnology. [click to learn more]

                Becoming You: Human Development Across the Lifespan

                What made you who you are? How do you see yourself changing in the future? How do your decisions influence your own life and the lives of others? Human development is brought to life in this course through the use of online simulations and engaging class discussions and activities. You will raise a "virtual child" from birth to age 18 to see the effects of your parenting decisions over time. From infancy through elderhood, we will explore the biological, psychological, and social influences that shape who we become.

                This human development course is organized chronologically from infancy to elderhood, with each class period reflecting a new stage of life. [click to learn more]

                Psychology and Health: Emotions, Behaviors, and Disease

                Have you ever wondered where the terms “cold feet” or “butterflies in your stomach” come from? Have you ever wondered why zebras and other animals don’t get ulcers? This course will answer these and other questions related to the role of psychology in the onset, course, and treatment of physical health conditions. This course will provide an overview of the principles and applications of health psychology: “the study of how biology, psychology, and social processes work together to impact a person’s health and illness.” Students will learn how a person’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviors influence their physical health and will gain an appreciation of the connection between our mental and physical well-being.

                Health psychology topics will be discussed in terms of acute and chronic illnesses (e.g., cancer, HIV) and behaviors (e.g., sleep, diet/exercise, substance use). [click to learn more]

                The Mind, Brain, and Behavior

                Psychology – the study of the mind, the brain, and behavior – is relevant to every aspect of your life! How does personality form? How are memories constructed and stored? How does society and culture impact an individual’s behavior? How are mental illnesses diagnosed and treated? These are just some of the questions we will attempt to answer in this course. This course will provide an introduction to a broad range of topics in psychology, including biological psychology, social psychology, personality, developmental psychology, health psychology, and psychological disorders.

                Every aspect of our lives is touched in some way by the concepts of psychology, and no matter what you see as your future career, studying psychology can be useful. [click to learn more]

                Food For Thought: Personal to Global Perspectives on Nutrition

                How does the food people eat impact their bodies? The internet, family members, friends and the media may tell us different things, but what does the evidence say? Further, what do public health nutrition-based interventions look like and are they effective? Using a global, public health lens, students in this course will gain a better understanding of the intersections of nutrition, health, poverty and the importance of credible sources of information.

                Students will explore current research related to the human need of macronutrients and micronutrients to survive and function and will discuss sources, main functions and deficiency syndromes of each. [click to learn more]

                From Idea to Publication: Building Your Own Research Project

                This is a Course-based Research Experience (CRE) class that will provide students with the chance to propose, design, and conduct their own research projects, working on topics and seeking answers to questions that are currently unknown to science.

                The motto of The Brown University School of Public Health is "Learn public health by doing public health." This idea extends to this course you should learn research by doing research. [click to learn more]

                Social Impact of Natural and Manmade Disasters

                This interdisciplinary course focuses on natural and human-initiated disasters and their impact on human life. We will explore how social dynamics such as culture, inequality and social structure influence vulnerability and shape how people face, respond, recover, or fail to recover from disasters, and examine the evacuation process during a pandemic such as COVID-19.

                What is a disaster and how do the two broadest categories—natural and manmade disasters—differ from one another? [click to learn more]

                Student perception of group dynamics predicts individual performance: Comfort and equity matter

                Active learning in college classes and participation in the workforce frequently hinge on small group work. However, group dynamics vary, ranging from equitable collaboration to dysfunctional groups dominated by one individual. To explore how group dynamics impact student learning, we asked students in a large-enrollment university biology class to self-report their experience during in-class group work. Specifically, we asked students whether there was a friend in their group, whether they were comfortable in their group, and whether someone dominated their group. Surveys were administered after students participated in two different types of intentionally constructed group activities: 1) a loosely-structured activity wherein students worked together for an entire class period (termed the 'single-group' activity), or 2) a highly-structured 'jigsaw' activity wherein students first independently mastered different subtopics, then formed new groups to peer-teach their respective subtopics. We measured content mastery by the change in score on identical pre-/post-tests. We then investigated whether activity type or student demographics predicted the likelihood of reporting working with a dominator, being comfortable in their group, or working with a friend. We found that students who more strongly agreed that they worked with a dominator were 17.8% less likely to answer an additional question correct on the 8-question post-test. Similarly, when students were comfortable in their group, content mastery increased by 27.5%. Working with a friend was the single biggest predictor of student comfort, although working with a friend did not impact performance. Finally, we found that students were 67% less likely to agree that someone dominated their group during the jigsaw activities than during the single group activities. We conclude that group activities that rely on positive interdependence, and include turn-taking and have explicit prompts for students to explain their reasoning, such as our jigsaw, can help reduce the negative impact of inequitable groups.

                Conflict of interest statement

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


                Fig 1. Raw means showing student performance…

                Fig 1. Raw means showing student performance on the post-test as a function of reporting…

                Fig 2. Raw means show that some…

                Fig 2. Raw means show that some student characteristics predict which students report a dominator…

                Fig 3. Raw means show that a…

                Fig 3. Raw means show that a carefully designed jigsaw in-class activity reduced the dominator…


                This online visual acuity test is not a medical evaluation and does not replace a visit to a eye care professional. It is not designed to be used as a diagnosis for illness or other conditions, for treatment, or for the mitigation or prevention of illness. This test simply aims to give you a general idea about your visual capacity. We recommend that you follow-up this test with a full vision evaluation by a vision care specialist. Only eye care professionals can take decisions on medical treatment, diagnosis or prescription.


                Studying the forces that drive the evolution of sex determination has mainly come from theoretical works, with little empirical data. However, the genomic revolution has allowed researchers to address scientific questions and tackle novel biological systems at the molecular level. As new genomic approaches increase the pace of discovery and characterization of sex determination innon-model organisms, we anticipate that comparative phylogenetic methods will be key to examining the roles of various ecological and genetic factors that drive changes in sex determination mechanisms. Additionally, genomic data make it increasingly possible to map sex-determining loci from closely related species and to identify the evolutionary mechanisms hypothesized to cause transitions among sex-determining systems. Finally, comparative and functional genomic data will allow researchers to address how new master sex determination genes are incorporated into existing genetic networks controlling sexual development. A full understanding of the diversity of sex determination mechanisms will require that we expand the taxonomic breadth of study systems well beyond classic model organisms. Promising models include dipteran insects, such as houseflies or chironomids teleost fish and reptilian clades, including turtles and lizards as well as plant genera, such as strawberries, that show variation within and between species in how sex (or gender in plants) is determined. Integrative and interdisciplinary approaches across the tree of life will illuminate the diversity of sex determination and yield exciting new insights of how and why sex determination evolves in animals and plants.

                Watch the video: past paper 2019 discussionbiology portiontest yourself (July 2022).


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