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The intestine

The intestine


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Definition:

Of the intestine belongs together with the mouth, gallbladder, liver and pancreas to the digestive tract. Over a total length of about 9m, the intestine decomposes the ingested food, absorbs the nutrients needed by the body via the intestinal walls and excretes the unusable portions again. Both herbal and carnal food can be utilized by the human gut. Biologically, humans are one of the omnivores.
At the decomposition or splitting of the food are microgranisms (in the sum also intestinal flora called) decisively involved. Humans and intestinal bacteria are in a symbiosis, so a mutually beneficial relationship. Intestinal bacteria split the long-chain carbohydrates into short-chain carbohydrates for humans. Only then can the intestinal cells in the intestinal walls absorb the carbohydrates. In return, humans provide the bacteria with a suitable "living environment" along with a steady supply of food.

Structure of the intestine and digestive organs

Expiration of digestion

small intestine:
The porridge reaches the stomach via the stomach Duodenum, Together with the empty and curved intestines, they form the approx. 5.5 m long small intestine. At the beginning the duodenum neutralizes the stomach acid (pH value of 2) in the food pulp, since the stomach acid would otherwise corrode the intestine. Only in the stomach itself can the gastric acid fulfill its function without damaging other cells. Proteins are already cleaved in the stomach by the enzyme pepsin. Fats and carbohydrates are retained in their molecular structure.
Through the pancreas daily gets about a liter of digestive secretions in the subsequent jejunum, Here the cleavage of long-chain fats and carbohydrates begins in their basic components; the splitting of the proteins is continued. The intestinal wall absorbs the basic components and directs them into the bloodstream. The gallbladder also introduces fluid. Bile helps in the breakdown of fats (lipases), but also contains the breakdown product bilirubin, which is excreted in this way through the intestine.
In the following ileum (2.5m long) the chair then a majority of its liquid is withdrawn. On the one hand the liquid from the food, but also those from saliva, neutralized gastric acid and digestive secretions. In this way, the body absorbs several liters of water a day - the liquid from the ingested food is not included. In addition, the intake of vitamin B12 takes place in the ileum, which has an enormous importance for cell division.
colon:
With a length of 1.5m, the large intestine is significantly shorter than the small intestine. Again, can be divided into three main sections again: Cecum, colon and rectum. Of the appendix (5-10cm long) is located near the transition from the large intestine to the small intestine. The "blind" is related to the special property, because so to speak, the cecum ends with the appendix as a "dead end". The functions are still not fully understood and split scientists in two camps: One side views the cecum as an evolutionary relic that today no longer functions (Rudiment). The other side of the appendix has a positive effect on the immune system. As so often, the truth is probably here in the middle.
Of the colon 1.2m is the relatively longest section in the colon. Here, the chair is again deprived of water and thickened to the final consistency. in the rectum (15cm long), the chair can be stored until a larger amount has accumulated. This allows for regular, but not permanent, defecation.
Comparison of colon and small intestine



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