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18.10: Glossary- The Brain and Cranial Nerves - Biology


alkaloid: substance, usually from a plant source, that is chemically basic with respect to pH and will stimulate bitter receptors

amacrine cell: type of cell in the retina that connects to the bipolar cells near the outer synaptic layer and provides the basis for early image processing within the retina

ampulla: in the ear, the structure at the base of a semicircular canal that contains the hair cells and cupula for transduction of rotational movement of the head

anosmia: loss of the sense of smell; usually the result of physical disruption of the first cranial nerve

anterior corticospinal tract: division of the corticospinal pathway that travels through the ventral (anterior) column of the spinal cord and controls axial musculature through the medial motor neurons in the ventral (anterior) horn

aqueous humor: watery fluid that fills the anterior chamber containing the cornea, iris, ciliary body, and lens of the eye

ascending pathway: fiber structure that relays sensory information from the periphery through the spinal cord and brain stem to other structures of the brain

association area: region of cortex connected to a primary sensory cortical area that further processes the information to generate more complex sensory perceptions

audition: sense of hearing

auricle: fleshy external structure of the ear

Betz cells: output cells of the primary motor cortex that cause musculature to move through synapses on cranial and spinal motor neurons

Broca’s area: region of the frontal lobe associated with the motor commands necessary for speech production

basilar membrane: in the ear, the floor of the cochlear duct on which the organ of Corti sits

binocular depth cues: indications of the distance of visual stimuli on the basis of slight differences in the images projected onto either retina

bipolar cell: cell type in the retina that connects the photoreceptors to the RGCs

capsaicin: molecule that activates nociceptors by interacting with a temperature-sensitive ion channel and is the basis for “hot” sensations in spicy food

cerebral peduncles: segments of the descending motor pathway that make up the white matter of the ventral midbrain

cervical enlargement: region of the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord that has a larger population of motor neurons for the greater number of and finer control of muscles of the upper limb

chemoreceptor: sensory receptor cell that is sensitive to chemical stimuli, such as in taste, smell, or pain

chief sensory nucleus: component of the trigeminal nuclei that is found in the pons

choroid: highly vascular tissue in the wall of the eye that supplies the outer retina with blood

ciliary body: smooth muscle structure on the interior surface of the iris that controls the shape of the lens through the zonule fibers

circadian rhythm: internal perception of the daily cycle of light and dark based on retinal activity related to sunlight

cochlea: auditory portion of the inner ear containing structures to transduce sound stimuli

cochlear duct: space within the auditory portion of the inner ear that contains the organ of Corti and is adjacent to the scala tympani and scala vestibuli on either side

cone photoreceptor: one of the two types of retinal receptor cell that is specialized for color vision through the use of three photopigments distributed through three separate populations of cells

contralateral: word meaning “on the opposite side,” as in axons that cross the midline in a fiber tract

cornea: fibrous covering of the anterior region of the eye that is transparent so that light can pass through it

corneal reflex: protective response to stimulation of the cornea causing contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle resulting in blinking of the eye

corticobulbar tract: connection between the cortex and the brain stem responsible for generating movement

corticospinal tract: connection between the cortex and the spinal cord responsible for generating movement

cupula: specialized structure within the base of a semicircular canal that bends the stereocilia of hair cells when the head rotates by way of the relative movement of the enclosed fluid

decussate: to cross the midline, as in fibers that project from one side of the body to the other

dorsal column system: ascending tract of the spinal cord associated with fine touch and proprioceptive sensations

dorsal stream: connections between cortical areas from the occipital to parietal lobes that are responsible for the perception of visual motion and guiding movement of the body in relation to that motion

encapsulated ending: configuration of a sensory receptor neuron with dendrites surrounded by specialized structures to aid in transduction of a particular type of sensation, such as the lamellated corpuscles in the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue

equilibrium: sense of balance that includes sensations of position and movement of the head

executive functions: cognitive processes of the prefrontal cortex that lead to directing goal-directed behavior, which is a precursor to executing motor commands

external ear: structures on the lateral surface of the head, including the auricle and the ear canal back to the tympanic membrane

exteroceptor: sensory receptor that is positioned to interpret stimuli from the external environment, such as photoreceptors in the eye or somatosensory receptors in the skin

extraocular muscle: one of six muscles originating out of the bones of the orbit and inserting into the surface of the eye which are responsible for moving the eye

extrapyramidal system: pathways between the brain and spinal cord that are separate from the corticospinal tract and are responsible for modulating the movements generated through that primary pathway

fasciculus cuneatus: lateral division of the dorsal column system composed of fibers from sensory neurons in the upper body

fasciculus gracilis: medial division of the dorsal column system composed of fibers from sensory neurons in the lower body

fibrous tunic: outer layer of the eye primarily composed of connective tissue known as the sclera and cornea

fovea: exact center of the retina at which visual stimuli are focused for maximal acuity, where the retina is thinnest, at which there is nothing but photoreceptors

free nerve ending: configuration of a sensory receptor neuron with dendrites in the connective tissue of the organ, such as in the dermis of the skin, that are most often sensitive to chemical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli

frontal eye fields: area of the prefrontal cortex responsible for moving the eyes to attend to visual stimuli

general sense: any sensory system that is distributed throughout the body and incorporated into organs of multiple other systems, such as the walls of the digestive organs or the skin

gustation: sense of taste

gustatory receptor cells: sensory cells in the taste bud that transduce the chemical stimuli of gustation

hair cells: mechanoreceptor cells found in the inner ear that transduce stimuli for the senses of hearing and balance

incus: (also, anvil) ossicle of the middle ear that connects the malleus to the stapes

inferior colliculus: last structure in the auditory brainstem pathway that projects to the thalamus and superior colliculus

inferior oblique: extraocular muscle responsible for lateral rotation of the eye

inferior rectus: extraocular muscle responsible for looking down

inner ear: structure within the temporal bone that contains the sensory apparati of hearing and balance

inner segment: in the eye, the section of a photoreceptor that contains the nucleus and other major organelles for normal cellular functions

inner synaptic layer: layer in the retina where bipolar cells connect to RGCs

interaural intensity difference: cue used to aid sound localization in the horizontal plane that compares the relative loudness of sounds at the two ears, because the ear closer to the sound source will hear a slightly more intense sound

interaural time difference: cue used to help with sound localization in the horizontal plane that compares the relative time of arrival of sounds at the two ears, because the ear closer to the sound source will receive the stimulus microseconds before the other ear

internal capsule: segment of the descending motor pathway that passes between the caudate nucleus and the putamen

interoceptor: sensory receptor that is positioned to interpret stimuli from internal organs, such as stretch receptors in the wall of blood vessels

ipsilateral: word meaning on the same side, as in axons that do not cross the midline in a fiber tract

iris: colored portion of the anterior eye that surrounds the pupil

kinesthesia: sense of body movement based on sensations in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, and the skin

lacrimal duct: duct in the medial corner of the orbit that drains tears into the nasal cavity

lacrimal gland: gland lateral to the orbit that produces tears to wash across the surface of the eye

lateral corticospinal tract: division of the corticospinal pathway that travels through the lateral column of the spinal cord and controls appendicular musculature through the lateral motor neurons in the ventral (anterior) horn

lateral geniculate nucleus: thalamic target of the RGCs that projects to the visual cortex

lateral rectus: extraocular muscle responsible for abduction of the eye

lens: component of the eye that focuses light on the retina

levator palpebrae superioris: muscle that causes elevation of the upper eyelid, controlled by fibers in the oculomotor nerve

lumbar enlargement: region of the ventral (anterior) horn of the spinal cord that has a larger population of motor neurons for the greater number of muscles of the lower limb

macula: enlargement at the base of a semicircular canal at which transduction of equilibrium stimuli takes place within the ampulla

malleus: (also, hammer) ossicle that is directly attached to the tympanic membrane

mechanoreceptor: receptor cell that transduces mechanical stimuli into an electrochemical signal

medial geniculate nucleus: thalamic target of the auditory brain stem that projects to the auditory cortex

medial lemniscus: fiber tract of the dorsal column system that extends from the nuclei gracilis and cuneatus to the thalamus, and decussates

medial rectus: extraocular muscle responsible for adduction of the eye

mesencephalic nucleus: component of the trigeminal nuclei that is found in the midbrain

middle ear: space within the temporal bone between the ear canal and bony labyrinth where the ossicles amplify sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the oval window

multimodal integration area: region of the cerebral cortex in which information from more than one sensory modality is processed to arrive at higher level cortical functions such as memory, learning, or cognition

neural tunic: layer of the eye that contains nervous tissue, namely the retina

nociceptor: receptor cell that senses pain stimuli

nucleus cuneatus: medullary nucleus at which first-order neurons of the dorsal column system synapse specifically from the upper body and arms

nucleus gracilis: medullary nucleus at which first-order neurons of the dorsal column system synapse specifically from the lower body and legs

odorant molecules: volatile chemicals that bind to receptor proteins in olfactory neurons to stimulate the sense of smell

olfaction: sense of smell

olfactory bulb: central target of the first cranial nerve; located on the ventral surface of the frontal lobe in the cerebrum

olfactory epithelium: region of the nasal epithelium where olfactory neurons are located

olfactory sensory neuron: receptor cell of the olfactory system, sensitive to the chemical stimuli of smell, the axons of which compose the first cranial nerve

opsin: protein that contains the photosensitive cofactor retinal for phototransduction

optic chiasm: decussation point in the visual system at which medial retina fibers cross to the other side of the brain

optic disc: spot on the retina at which RGC axons leave the eye and blood vessels of the inner retina pass

optic nerve: second cranial nerve, which is responsible visual sensation

optic tract: name for the fiber structure containing axons from the retina posterior to the optic chiasm representing their CNS location

organ of Corti: structure in the cochlea in which hair cells transduce movements from sound waves into electrochemical signals

osmoreceptor: receptor cell that senses differences in the concentrations of bodily fluids on the basis of osmotic pressure

ossicles: three small bones in the middle ear

otolith: gelatinous substance in the utricle and saccule of the inner ear that contains calcium carbonate crystals and into which the stereocilia of hair cells are embedded

outer segment: in the eye, the section of a photoreceptor that contains opsin molecules that transduce light stimuli

outer synaptic layer: layer in the retina at which photoreceptors connect to bipolar cells

oval window: membrane at the base of the cochlea where the stapes attaches, marking the beginning of the scala vestibuli

palpebral conjunctiva: membrane attached to the inner surface of the eyelids that covers the anterior surface of the cornea

papilla: for gustation, a bump-like projection on the surface of the tongue that contains taste buds

photoisomerization: chemical change in the retinal molecule that alters the bonding so that it switches from the 11-cis-retinal isomer to the all-trans-retinal isomer

photon: individual “packet” of light

photoreceptor: receptor cell specialized to respond to light stimuli

premotor cortex: cortical area anterior to the primary motor cortex that is responsible for planning movements

primary sensory cortex: region of the cerebral cortex that initially receives sensory input from an ascending pathway from the thalamus and begins the processing that will result in conscious perception of that modality

proprioception: sense of position and movement of the body

proprioceptor: receptor cell that senses changes in the position and kinesthetic aspects of the body

pupil: open hole at the center of the iris that light passes through into the eye

pyramidal decussation: location at which corticospinal tract fibers cross the midline and segregate into the anterior and lateral divisions of the pathway

pyramids: segment of the descending motor pathway that travels in the anterior position of the medulla

receptor cell: cell that transduces environmental stimuli into neural signals

red nucleus: midbrain nucleus that sends corrective commands to the spinal cord along the rubrospinal tract, based on disparity between an original command and the sensory feedback from movement

reticulospinal tract: extrapyramidal connections between the brain stem and spinal cord that modulate movement, contribute to posture, and regulate muscle tone

retinal ganglion cell (RGC): neuron of the retina that projects along the second cranial nerve

retinal: cofactor in an opsin molecule that undergoes a biochemical change when struck by a photon (pronounced with a stress on the last syllable)

retina: nervous tissue of the eye at which phototransduction takes place

rhodopsin: photopigment molecule found in the rod photoreceptors

rod photoreceptor: one of the two types of retinal receptor cell that is specialized for low-light vision

round window: membrane that marks the end of the scala tympani

rubrospinal tract: descending motor control pathway, originating in the red nucleus, that mediates control of the limbs on the basis of cerebellar processing

saccule: structure of the inner ear responsible for transducing linear acceleration in the vertical plane

scala tympani: portion of the cochlea that extends from the apex to the round window

scala vestibuli: portion of the cochlea that extends from the oval window to the apex

sclera: white of the eye

semicircular canals: structures within the inner ear responsible for transducing rotational movement information

sensory homunculus: topographic representation of the body within the somatosensory cortex demonstrating the correspondence between neurons processing stimuli and sensitivity

sensory modality: a particular system for interpreting and perceiving environmental stimuli by the nervous system

solitary nucleus: medullar nucleus that receives taste information from the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves

somatosensation: general sense associated with modalities lumped together as touch

special sense: any sensory system associated with a specific organ structure, namely smell, taste, sight, hearing, and balance

spinal trigeminal nucleus: component of the trigeminal nuclei that is found in the medulla

spinothalamic tract: ascending tract of the spinal cord associated with pain and temperature sensations

spiral ganglion: location of neuronal cell bodies that transmit auditory information along the eighth cranial nerve

stapes: (also, stirrup) ossicle of the middle ear that is attached to the inner ear

stereocilia: array of apical membrane extensions in a hair cell that transduce movements when they are bent

stretch reflex: response to activation of the muscle spindle stretch receptor that causes contraction of the muscle to maintain a constant length

submodality: specific sense within a broader major sense such as sweet as a part of the sense of taste, or color as a part of vision

superior colliculus: structure in the midbrain that combines visual, auditory, and somatosensory input to coordinate spatial and topographic representations of the three sensory systems

superior oblique: extraocular muscle responsible for medial rotation of the eye

superior rectus: extraocular muscle responsible for looking up

supplemental motor area: cortical area anterior to the primary motor cortex that is responsible for planning movements

suprachiasmatic nucleus: hypothalamic target of the retina that helps to establish the circadian rhythm of the body on the basis of the presence or absence of daylight

taste buds: structures within a papilla on the tongue that contain gustatory receptor cells

tectorial membrane: component of the organ of Corti that lays over the hair cells, into which the stereocilia are embedded

tectospinal tract: extrapyramidal connections between the superior colliculus and spinal cord

thermoreceptor: sensory receptor specialized for temperature stimuli

topographical: relating to positional information

transduction: process of changing an environmental stimulus into the electrochemical signals of the nervous system

trochlea: cartilaginous structure that acts like a pulley for the superior oblique muscle

tympanic membrane: ear drum

umami: taste submodality for sensitivity to the concentration of amino acids; also called the savory sense

utricle: structure of the inner ear responsible for transducing linear acceleration in the horizontal plane

vascular tunic: middle layer of the eye primarily composed of connective tissue with a rich blood supply

ventral posterior nucleus: nucleus in the thalamus that is the target of gustatory sensations and projects to the cerebral cortex

ventral stream: connections between cortical areas from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe that are responsible for identification of visual stimuli

vestibular ganglion: location of neuronal cell bodies that transmit equilibrium information along the eighth cranial nerve

vestibular nuclei: targets of the vestibular component of the eighth cranial nerve

vestibule: in the ear, the portion of the inner ear responsible for the sense of equilibrium

vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): reflex based on connections between the vestibular system and the cranial nerves of eye movements that ensures images are stabilized on the retina as the head and body move

vestibulospinal tract: extrapyramidal connections between the vestibular nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord that modulate movement and contribute to balance on the basis of the sense of equilibrium

visceral sense: sense associated with the internal organs

vision: special sense of sight based on transduction of light stimuli

visual acuity: property of vision related to the sharpness of focus, which varies in relation to retinal position

vitreous humor: viscous fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye

working memory: function of the prefrontal cortex to maintain a representation of information that is not in the immediate environment

zonule fibers: fibrous connections between the ciliary body and the lens


102 Glossary: The Endocrine System

adrenal glands endocrine glands located at the top of each kidney that are important for the regulation of the stress response, blood pressure and blood volume, water homeostasis, and electrolyte levels

adrenal medulla inner layer of the adrenal glands that plays an important role in the stress response by producing epinephrine and norepinephrine

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroid hormones (also called corticotropin)

angiotensin-converting enzyme the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hypothalamic hormone that is stored by the posterior pituitary and that signals the kidneys to reabsorb water

alarm reaction the short-term stress, or the fight-or-flight response, of stage one of the general adaptation syndrome mediated by the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine

aldosterone hormone produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex that stimulates sodium and fluid retention and increases blood volume and blood pressure

alpha cell pancreatic islet cell type that produces the hormone glucagon

autocrine chemical signal that elicits a response in the same cell that secreted it

beta cell pancreatic islet cell type that produces the hormone insulin

calcitonin peptide hormone produced and secreted by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland that functions to decrease blood calcium levels

chromaffin neuroendocrine cells of the adrenal medulla

colloid viscous fluid in the central cavity of thyroid follicles, containing the glycoprotein thyroglobulin

cortisol glucocorticoid important in gluconeogenesis, the catabolism of glycogen, and downregulation of the immune system

delta cell minor cell type in the pancreas that secretes the hormone somatostatin

diabetes mellitus condition caused by destruction or dysfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas or cellular resistance to insulin that results in abnormally high blood glucose levels

endocrine gland tissue or organ that secretes hormones into the blood and lymph without ducts such that they may be transported to organs distant from the site of secretion

endocrine system cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones as a primary or secondary function and play an integral role in normal bodily processes

epinephrine primary and most potent catecholamine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to short-term stress also called adrenaline

estrogens class of predominantly female sex hormones important for the development and growth of the female reproductive tract, secondary sex characteristics, the female reproductive cycle, and the maintenance of pregnancy

exocrine system cells, tissues, and organs that secrete substances directly to target tissues via glandular ducts

general adaptation syndrome (GAS) the human body’s three-stage response pattern to short- and long-term stress

gigantism disorder in children caused when abnormally high levels of GH prompt excessive growth

glucagon pancreatic hormone that stimulates the catabolism of glycogen to glucose, thereby increasing blood glucose levels

glucocorticoids hormones produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex that influence glucose metabolism

goiter enlargement of the thyroid gland either as a result of iodine deficiency or hyperthyroidism

gonadotropins hormones that regulate the function of the gonads

growth hormone (GH) anterior pituitary hormone that promotes tissue building and influences nutrient metabolism (also called somatotropin)

hormone secretion of an endocrine organ that travels via the bloodstream or lymphatics to induce a response in target cells or tissues in another part of the body

hyperglycemia abnormally high blood glucose levels

hyperparathyroidism disorder caused by overproduction of PTH that results in abnormally elevated blood calcium

hyperthyroidism clinically abnormal, elevated level of thyroid hormone in the blood characterized by an increased metabolic rate, excess body heat, sweating, diarrhea, weight loss, and increased heart rate

hypoparathyroidism disorder caused by underproduction of PTH that results in abnormally low blood calcium

hypophyseal portal system network of blood vessels that enables hypothalamic hormones to travel into the anterior lobe of the pituitary without entering the systemic circulation

hypothalamus region of the diencephalon inferior to the thalamus that functions in neural and endocrine signaling

hypothyroidism clinically abnormal, low level of thyroid hormone in the blood characterized by low metabolic rate, weight gain, cold extremities, constipation, and reduced mental activity

infundibulum stalk containing vasculature and neural tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus (also called the pituitary stalk)

inhibin hormone secreted by the male and female gonads that inhibits FSH production by the anterior pituitary

inositol triphosphate (IP3) molecule that initiates the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores

insulin pancreatic hormone that enhances the cellular uptake and utilization of glucose, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels

insulin-like growth factors (IGF) protein that enhances cellular proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, and stimulates the cellular uptake of amino acids for protein synthesis

luteinizing hormone (LH) anterior pituitary hormone that triggers ovulation and the production of ovarian hormones in females, and the production of testosterone in males

melatonin amino acid–derived hormone that is secreted in response to low light and causes drowsiness

mineralocorticoids hormones produced by the zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex that influence fluid and electrolyte balance

neonatal hypothyroidism condition characterized by cognitive deficits, short stature, and other signs and symptoms in people born to women who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy

norepinephrine secondary catecholamine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to short-term stress also called noradrenaline

osmoreceptor hypothalamic sensory receptor that is stimulated by changes in solute concentration (osmotic pressure) in the blood

oxytocin hypothalamic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary gland and important in stimulating uterine contractions in labor, milk ejection during breastfeeding, and feelings of attachment (also produced in males)

pancreas organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions located posterior to the stomach that is important for digestion and the regulation of blood glucose

pancreatic islets specialized clusters of pancreatic cells that have endocrine functions also called islets of Langerhans

parathyroid glands small, round glands embedded in the posterior thyroid gland that produce parathyroid hormone (PTH)

parathyroid hormone (PTH) peptide hormone produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands in response to low blood calcium levels

pineal gland endocrine gland that secretes melatonin, which is important in regulating the sleep-wake cycle

pinealocyte cell of the pineal gland that produces and secretes the hormone melatonin

pituitary dwarfism disorder in children caused when abnormally low levels of GH result in growth retardation

pituitary gland bean-sized organ suspended from the hypothalamus that produces, stores, and secretes hormones in response to hypothalamic stimulation (also called hypophysis)

PP cell minor cell type in the pancreas that secretes the hormone pancreatic polypeptide

progesterone predominantly female sex hormone important in regulating the female reproductive cycle and the maintenance of pregnancy

prolactin (PRL) anterior pituitary hormone that promotes development of the mammary glands and the production of breast milk

stage of exhaustion stage three of the general adaptation syndrome the body’s long-term response to stress mediated by the hormones of the adrenal cortex

stage of resistance stage two of the general adaptation syndrome the body’s continued response to stress after stage one diminishes

testosterone steroid hormone secreted by the male testes and important in the maturation of sperm cells, growth and development of the male reproductive system, and the development of male secondary sex characteristics

thyroxine (also, tetraiodothyronine, T4) amino acid–derived thyroid hormone that is more abundant but less potent than T3 and often converted to T3 by target cells

triiodothyronine (also, T3) amino acid–derived thyroid hormone that is less abundant but more potent than T4

zona fasciculata intermediate region of the adrenal cortex that produce hormones called glucocorticoids

zona glomerulosa most superficial region of the adrenal cortex, which produces the hormones collectively referred to as mineralocorticoids

zona reticularis deepest region of the adrenal cortex, which produces the steroid sex hormones called androgens


Course Syllabus Anatomy and Physiology I (Biol 2401) Fall 2014, CRN# 26424 Credit: 4 Semester hours/16 weeks Lecture: Room 367 9:00AM to 12:00 PM Saturdays Laboratory: Room 276 12:00 PM to 3:00PM Saturdays

Topics studied here are the structure and function of human cells, tissues, and organ systems including integumentary, skeletal, musculature, and nervous systems. The objective of this course is to give the students the basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology, especially those entering applied health sciences.
Most of you will find the material is new to you. Please set aside adequate time for study - you will probably need to spend at least 6 hours per week.

Student Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will be able to understand and apply the principals of homeostasis and the importance of feedback loops.
  2. Students will be able to evaluate information and make conclusions based on their knowledge of membrane transport.
  3. Students will be able to apply their knowledge of muscle structure to explain how muscles function.
  4. Students will be able to apply their knowledge of the structure of the skeletal system to its functions.
  5. Students will be able to understand and apply their knowledge of changes in polarity on membrane potential.
  6. Students will be able to apply and demonstrate their knowledge concerning reflex arcs.
  7. Students will be able to apply the knowledge gained in lab utilizing anatomical models, physiological experiments, histological slides and the compound light microscope.
  8. Students will utilize online interactive evaluation tools to gauge their understanding of key anatomical and physiological concepts prior to lecture/examinations/quizzes where applicable.

Instructional Materials

Textbook: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. Ninth Edition. By Martini.

Laboratory Manual: Human Anatomy and Physiology I Laboratory Manual, Fifth edition, Ed. By Wagle, J.R., and Johnson-Murray, J., 2011

Department Laboratory Study Pages, including cat dissection pages. Links to these resources are found on the Lab Resources go to www.hccs.edu/biologylabs

An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

Orientation,
Microscopes and the Cell

Cellular Level of Organization, The tissue level of organization

The Anatomical Terminology

FIRST LECTURE EXAM: (Chapters 1, 3, 4)
Bone Structure

The Integumentary System, The skeletal System- basic

The Axial Skeletal System

The skeletal System- axial, Quiz 1

The Appendicular skeleton

The skeletal System- appendicular,

SECOND LECTURE EXAM. (Chapters 5, 6,7)
Joints,

Joints, REVIEW for the lab exam

Muscle Structure, Muscle Physiology

THIRD LECTURE EXAM (Chapters 8, 9,10)
Neural Tissue

The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves

The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes

Brain and Cranial nerves Quiz 2

The Brain and Cranial nerves

Neural Integration II

Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Order Functions

FINAL LECTURE EXAM 12/13 at 9:00 am( all Chapters)

Last Day for Administrative and Student Withdrawal

Grades available to students

  • Lecture exams: There will be a total of four lecture exams. All exams are on-campus and proctored. The questions will be primarily multiple choice, along with some true or false and fill in the blanks. Each exam has equal weight-age with other exams (100 pts each).
  • Lab exam : There will be a total of two lab exams worth 100 points each.
    • All lecture and laboratory exams are closed book . Out of the above six exams (4 lecture + 2 lab), one Lecture exam grade will be dropped. If you take all 4 lecture exams, your lowest grade automatically becomes your drop grade. NO Make up exams will be given.

    4 lecture exams
    (lowest 1 to be dropped)

    Lab reports / Quiz 1 and 2

    A = 675-750 (90-100%)
    B = 600-674 (80-89%)
    C= 525-599 (70-79%)
    D=450-524 (60-69%)
    F = 0-449 (Below 60%)

    Instructor’s Incomplete Policy: The only circumstances under which you can get an I (incomplete) is if you are too ill to take the final. Once you receive an I, in order to get a grade for the course, you will have to complete the material by the end of the next full semester. If you do not, the I will convert to an F.

    A student who is academically dishonest is, by definition, not showing that the coursework has been learned, and that student is claiming an advantage not available to other students. The instructor is responsible for measuring each student's individual achievements and also for ensuring that all students compete on a level playing field. Thus, in our system, the instructor has teaching, grading, and enforcement roles. You are expected to be familiar with the University's Policy on Academic Honesty, found in the catalog. What that means is: If you are charged with an offense, pleading ignorance of the rules will not help you. Students are responsible for conducting themselves with honor and integrity in fulfilling course requirements. Penalties and/or disciplinary proceedings may be initiated by College System officials against a student accused of scholastic dishonesty. “Scholastic dishonesty”: includes, but is not limited to, cheating on a test, plagiarism, and collusion.

    Cheating on a test includes:
    Copying from another students’ test paper

    · Using materials not authorized by the person giving the test

    · Collaborating with another student during a test without authorization

    · Knowingly using, buying, selling, stealing, transporting, or soliciting in whole or part the contents of a test that has not been administered

    · Bribing another person to obtain a test that is to be administered.

    Plagiarism means the appropriation of another’s work and the unacknowledged incorporation of that work in one’s own written work offered for credit.

    Collusion means the unauthorized collaboration with another person in preparing written work offered for credit. Possible punishments for academic dishonesty may include a grade of 0 or F in the particular assignment, failure in the course, and/or recommendation for probation or dismissal from the College System. (See the Student Handbook)

    Class Attendance

    It is important that you come to class. Attending class regularly is the best way to succeed in this class. Research has shown that the single most important factor in student success is attendance. Simply put, going to class greatly increases your ability to succeed. You are expected to attend all lecture and labs regularly. You are responsible for materials covered during your absences. You should check with your colleagues using blackboard to see what you missed. It is your responsibility to initiate a withdrawal from this course. As an adult making the decision not to attend, you do not have to notify the instructor prior to missing a class.

    Poor attendance records tend to correlate with poor grades. If you miss any class, including the first week, you are responsible for all material missed. It is a good idea to find a friend or a buddy in class who would be willing to share class notes or discussion or be able to hand in paper if you unavoidably miss a class.

    Use of Camera and/or Recording Devices

    As a student active in the learning community of this course, it is your responsibility to be respectful of the learning atmosphere in your classroom. To show respect of your fellow students and instructor, you will turn off your phone and other electronic devices, and will not use these devices in the classroom unless you receive permission from the instructor.

    Use of recording devices, including camera phones and tape recorders, is prohibited in classrooms, laboratories, faculty offices, and other locations where instruction, tutoring, or testing occurs. Students with disabilities who need to use a recording device as a reasonable accommodation should contact the Office for Students with Disabilities for information regarding reasonable accommodations

    Students with Disabilities

    Any student with a documented disability (e.g. physical, learning, psychiatric, vision, hearing, etc) who needs to arrange reasonable accommodations must contact the appropriate HCC Disability Support Service (DSS) Counselor at the beginning of each semester. Faculty is authorized to provide only the accommodations requested by the Disability Support Services Office.

    Students who are requesting special testing accommodations must first contact the appropriate (most convenient) DSS office for assistance:

    Disability Support Services Offices:

    Central: 713.718.6164 – also for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services and Students Outside of the HCC District service areas.

    Course Repeater Policy

    Beginning in the Fall 2006, students who repeat a course for a third or more times will face significant tuition/fee increases at HCC and other Texas public colleges and universities. Please ask your instructor and/or counselor about opportunities for tutoring/other assistance prior to considering course withdrawal or if you are not receiving passing grades.

    • If a student decides to drop or withdraw from a class upon careful review of other options, the student can drop online prior to the deadline through their HCC Student Center.
    • HCC and/or instructors may drop students for excessive absences without notification (see Class Attendance below).
    • Students should check HCC’s Academic Calendar by Term for drop/withdrawal dates and deadlines. Classes of other duration (mini-term, flex-entry, 8-weeks, etc.) may have different final withdrawal deadlines. Please contact the HCC Registrar’s Office at 713.718.8500 to determine mini-term class withdrawal deadlines.

    Fall Withdrawal Deadlines: March 29th, before 4:30pm

    EGLS3 -- Evaluation for Greater Learning Student Survey System

    At Houston Community College, professors believe that thoughtful student feedback is necessary to improve teaching and learning. During a designated time, you will be asked to answer a short online survey of research-based questions related to instruction. The anonymous results of the survey will be made available to your professors and division chairs for continual improvement of instruction. Look for the survey as part of the Houston Community College Student System online near the end of the term.

    As with on-campus classes, all students in HCC Distance Education courses are required to follow all HCC Policies & Procedures, the Student Code of Conduct, the Student Handbook, and relevant sections of the Texas Education Code when interacting and communicating in a virtual classroom with faculty and fellow students. Students who violate these policies and guidelines will be subject to disciplinary action that could include denial of access to course-related email, discussion groups, and chat rooms or being removed from the class.

    International Students

    Receiving a W in a course may affect the status of your student Visa. Once a W is given for the course, it will not be changed to an F because of the visa consideration. Since January 1, 2003, International Students are restricted in the number of distance education courses that they may take during each semester. ONLY ONE online/distance education class may be counted towards the enrollment requirement for International Students per semester. Please contact the International Student Office at 713-718-8520 if you have any questions about your visa status and other transfer issues.

    Rules and Regulations

    • Textbook and lab manual are required.
    • Full class attendance is required. Students with more than four unexcused absences may result in an administrative withdrawal. Students are responsible for everything covered during their absence.
    • To avoid disruption in the class room, all pagers and the cell phones must be set on the silence mode.
    • Children or anyone who is not officially enrolled in the course will not be allowed in the laboratory.
    • Eating, drinking or smoking is strictly prohibited in the laboratory.
    • You must read the laboratory safety rules before doing any of the lab exercises.
    • The lab safety release form must be signed during the first lab session.
    • EXAM POLICIES: The following guidelines will govern all exams:
      • The students will not be allowed to leave the classroom before completing an exam.
      • Anyone arriving late will not be allowed to take an exam if any student has completed the exam and left the classroom.
      • All lecture and lab exams will be timed. Students arriving late will not be given extra time to complete an exam.
      • Use of recording devices, including camera phones and tape recorders, is prohibited in classrooms, laboratories, faculty offices, testing centers, and other locations where testing is taking place. Students with disabilities who need to use a recording device as a reasonable accommodation should contact the Office for Students with Disabilities for information regarding reasonable accommodations. Violations of this policy will result in discipline, up to and including termination or expulsion.
      • Students may not use dictionaries or other aids during the exam.
      • Make-up exams will be given only in the event of an emergency. No student may take more than one make-up exam without special permission. Students must e-mail or call the instructor immediately (if possible, on or before the day of the scheduled exam), explain his/her reason for missing the exam, and request a make-up. The instructor will decide if the request is valid.
      • Cheating is not permitted. If it occurs, the students may receive a zero for the exam, or a grade of “F” in the course.
      • Grades will not be posted at any time during the semester. You may receive your final grades at the end of the semester from the Biology Department of via the Internet by logging on to www.getgrades.com or www.hccs.edu or by calling toll free at 1-887-341-4300. Proper identification is required to receive the final grade. The transcripts will be mailed by the HCCS office only if requested by the student.
      • Lab reports are an important part of the course and are due upon completion of the experiment. They will be corrected and graded.

      Success in this course depends solely on the individual student!

      As your Instructor, it is my responsibility to:

      • Provide the grading scale and detailed grading formula explaining how student grades are to be derived.
      • Facilitate an effective learning environment through activities, study tools, and assignments.
      • Inform students of policies such as attendance, withdrawal, and assessments.
      • Provide the course outline and calendar which will include all the deadlines for the assignments.
      • Arrange to meet with individual students before and after class as required.

      To be successful in this class, it is the student’s responsibility to:

      • Participate in course activities.
      • Read and comprehend the instructional materials.
      • Complete the required assignments and exams.
      • Contact your professor if you have any questions regarding any element of the course you do not understand.
      • Keep copies of all paperwork, including the syllabus, handouts and all assignments.
      • Complete the course with a 70% passing score.
      • HINT: Work hard from the beginning of the semester rather than playing a "catch-up game during the second half of the semester.


      Have a GREAT SEMESTER and please remember to see me if any questions arise.


      Cerebral Cortex

      The cerebrum is covered by a continuous layer of gray matter that wraps around either side of the forebrain—the cerebral cortex. This thin, extensive region of wrinkled gray matter is responsible for the higher functions of the nervous system. A gyrus (plural = gyri) is the ridge of one of those wrinkles, and a sulcus (plural = sulci) is the groove between two gyri. The pattern of these folds of tissue indicates specific regions of the cerebral cortex.

      The head is limited by the size of the birth canal, and the brain must fit inside the cranial cavity of the skull. Extensive folding in the cerebral cortex enables more gray matter to fit into this limited space. If the gray matter of the cortex were peeled off of the cerebrum and laid out flat, its surface area would be roughly equal to one square meter.

      The folding of the cortex maximizes the amount of gray matter in the cranial cavity. During embryonic development, as the telencephalon expands within the skull, the brain goes through a regular course of growth that results in everyone’s brain having a similar pattern of folds. The surface of the brain can be mapped on the basis of the locations of large gyri and sulci. Using these landmarks, the cortex can be separated into four major regions, or lobes (Figure 14.3.2). The lateral sulcus that separates the temporal lobe from the other regions is one such landmark. Superior to the lateral sulcus are the parietal lobe and frontal lobe, which are separated from each other by the central sulcus. The posterior region of the cortex is the occipital lobe, which has no obvious anatomical border between it and the parietal or temporal lobes on the lateral surface of the brain. From the medial surface, an obvious landmark separating the parietal and occipital lobes is called the parieto-occipital sulcus. The fact that there is no obvious anatomical border between these lobes is consistent with the functions of these regions being interrelated.

      Figure 14.3.2 – Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex: The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes. Extensive folding increases the surface area available for cerebral functions.

      Different regions of the cerebral cortex can be associated with particular functions, a concept known as localization of function. In the early 1900s, a German neuroscientist named Korbinian Brodmann performed an extensive study of the microscopic anatomy—the cytoarchitecture—of the cerebral cortex and divided the cortex into 52 separate regions on the basis of the histology of the cortex. His work resulted in a system of classification known as Brodmann’s areas, which is still used today to describe the anatomical distinctions within the cortex (Figure 14.3.3). The results from Brodmann’s work on the anatomy align very well with the functional differences within the cortex. Areas 17 and 18 in the occipital lobe are responsible for primary visual perception. That visual information is complex, so it is processed in the temporal and parietal lobes as well.

      The temporal lobe is associated with primary auditory sensation, known as Brodmann’s areas 41 and 42 in the superior temporal lobe. Because regions of the temporal lobe are part of the limbic system, memory is an important function associated with that lobe. Memory is essentially a sensory function memories are recalled sensations such as the smell of Mom’s baking or the sound of a barking dog. Even memories of movement are really the memory of sensory feedback from those movements, such as stretching muscles or the movement of the skin around a joint. Structures in the temporal lobe are responsible for establishing long-term memory, but the ultimate location of those memories is usually in the region in which the sensory perception was processed.

      The main sensation associated with the parietal lobe is somatosensation, meaning the general sensations associated with the body. Posterior to the central sulcus is the postcentral gyrus, the primary somatosensory cortex, which is identified as Brodmann’s areas 1, 2, and 3. All of the tactile senses are processed in this area, including touch, pressure, tickle, pain, itch, and vibration, as well as more general senses of the body such as proprioception and kinesthesia, which are the senses of body position and movement, respectively.

      Anterior to the central sulcus is the frontal lobe, which is primarily associated with motor functions. The precentral gyrus is the primary motor cortex. Cells from this region of the cerebral cortex are the upper motor neurons that instruct cells in the spinal cord and brain stem (lower motor neurons) to move skeletal muscles. Anterior to this region are a few areas that are associated with planned movements. The premotor area is responsible for storing learned movement algorithms which are instructions for complex movements. Different algorithms activate the upper motor neurons in the correct sequence when a complex motor activity is performed. The frontal eye fields are important in eliciting scanning eye movements and in attending to visual stimuli. Broca’s area is responsible for the production of language, or controlling movements responsible for speech in the vast majority of people, it is located only on the left side. Anterior to these regions is the prefrontal lobe, which serves cognitive functions that can be the basis of personality, short-term memory, and consciousness. The prefrontal lobotomy is an outdated mode of treatment for personality disorders (psychiatric conditions) that profoundly affected the personality of the patient.

      Figure 14.3.3 – Brodmann’s Areas of the Cerebral Cortex: Brodmann mapping of functionally distinct regions of the cortex was based on its cytoarchitecture at a microscopic level.

      Area 17, as Brodmann described it, is also known as the primary visual cortex. Adjacent to that are areas 18 and 19, which constitute subsequent regions of visual processing. Area 22 is the primary auditory cortex, and it is followed by area 23, which further processes auditory information. Area 4 is the primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus, whereas area 6 is the premotor cortex. These areas suggest some specialization within the cortex for functional processing, both in sensory and motor regions. The fact that Brodmann’s areas correlate so closely to functional localization in the cerebral cortex demonstrates the strong link between structure and function in these regions.

      Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 17, and 22 are each described as primary cortical areas. The adjoining regions are each referred to as association areas. Primary areas are where sensory information is initially received from the thalamus for conscious perception, or—in the case of the primary motor cortex—where descending commands are sent down to the brain stem or spinal cord to execute movements (Figure 14.3.4).


      67 Glossary: The Respiratory System

      paranasal sinus one of the cavities within the skull that is connected to the conchae that serve to warm and humidify incoming air, produce mucus, and lighten the weight of the skull consists of frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal, and ethmoidal sinuses

      parietal pleura outermost layer of the pleura that connects to the thoracic wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm

      pharyngeal tonsil structure composed of lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx

      pharynx region of the conducting zone that forms a tube of skeletal muscle lined with respiratory epithelium located between the nasal conchae and the esophagus and trachea

      philtrum concave surface of the face that connects the apex of the nose to the top lip

      pleural cavity space between the visceral and parietal pleurae

      pleural fluid substance that acts as a lubricant for the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura during the movement of breathing

      pulmonary artery artery that arises from the pulmonary trunk and carries deoxygenated, arterial blood to the alveoli

      pulmonary plexus network of autonomic nervous system fibers found near the hilum of the lung

      pulmonary surfactant substance composed of phospholipids and proteins that reduces the surface tension of the alveoli made by type II alveolar cells

      respiratory bronchiole specific type of bronchiole that leads to alveolar sacs

      respiratory epithelium ciliated lining of much of the conducting zone that is specialized to remove debris and pathogens, and produce mucus

      respiratory membrane alveolar and capillary wall together, which form an air-blood barrier that facilitates the simple diffusion of gases

      respiratory zone includes structures of the respiratory system that are directly involved in gas exchange

      root region of the external nose between the eyebrows

      thyroid cartilage largest piece of cartilage that makes up the larynx and consists of two lamina

      trachea tube composed of cartilaginous rings and supporting tissue that connects the lung bronchi and the larynx provides a route for air to enter and exit the lung

      trachealis muscle smooth muscle located in the fibroelastic membrane of the trachea

      true vocal cord one of the pair of folded, white membranes that have a free inner edge that oscillates as air passes through to produce sound

      type I alveolar cell squamous epithelial cells that are the major cell type in the alveolar wall highly permeable to gases

      type II alveolar cell cuboidal epithelial cells that are the minor cell type in the alveolar wall secrete pulmonary surfactant

      vestibular fold part of the folded region of the glottis composed of mucous membrane supports the epiglottis during swallowing

      visceral pleura innermost layer of the pleura that is superficial to the lungs and extends into the lung fissures


      BIOLOGY (BIOL 2301)

      Topics studied here are the structure and function of human cells, tissues, and organ systems including integumentary, skeletal, musculature, and nervous systems. The objective of this course is to give the students the basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology, especially those entering applied health sciences. Most of you will find the material is new to you. Please set aside adequate time for study - you will probably need to spend at least 6 hours per week.

      Student Learning Outcomes

      1. Students will be able to understand and apply the principals of homeostasis and the importance of feedback loops.

      2. Students will be able to evaluate information and make conclusions based on their knowledge of membrane transport.

      3. Students will be able to apply their knowledge of muscle structure to explain how muscles function.

      4. Students will be able to apply their knowledge of the structure of the skeletal system to its functions.

      5. Students will be able to understand and apply their knowledge of changes in polarity on membrane potential.

      6. Students will be able to apply and demonstrate their knowledge concerning reflex arcs.

      7. Students will be able to apply the knowledge gained in lab utilizing anatomical models, physiological experiments, histological slides and the compound light microscope.

      8. Students will utilize online interactive evaluation tools to gauge their understanding of key anatomical and physiological concepts prior to lecture/examinations/quizzes where applicable.

      Textbook: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology. 10th Edition. By Martini.

      9/11 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology

      9/20 3,4 Cellular Level of Organization, The tissue level of organization

      9/27 5 The Integumentary System

      10/9 FIRST LECTURE EXAM: (Chapters 1, 3, 4)

      10/16 7 The Axial Skeletal System.

      10/23 8 The Appendicular skeleton

      10/30 SECOND LECTURE EXAM. (Chapters 5, 6,7)

      11/6-10,11 Muscle Tissue The Muscular System

      11/15 12 Neural Tissue THIRD LECTURE EXAM (Chapters 8, 9,10) Neural Tissue The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves and Spinal Reflexes

      11/20 14 THIRD LECTURE EXAM (Chapters 8, 9,10) The Brain and Cranial nerves

      11/29 15,16 Brain and Cranial nerves Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

      12/13 Grades available online

      · Lecture exams: There will be a total of 3 lecture exams. All exams are on-campus and proctored.

      · Final Exam: is mandatory for all students. Part of the final exam will be comprehensive and details will be shared in the classroom.

      Final Exam (mandatory) 150 pts

      A = (90-100%) B = (80-89%) C= (70-79%) D=(60-69%) F (Below 60%)

      Instructor’s Incomplete Policy: The only circumstances under which you can get an I (incomplete) is if you are too ill to take the final. Once you receive an I, in order to get a grade for the course, you will have to complete the material by the end of the next full semester. If you do not, the I will convert to an F.

      A student who is academically dishonest is, by definition, not showing that the coursework has been learned, and that student is claiming an advantage not available to other students. The instructor is responsible for measuring each student's individual achievements and also for ensuring that all students compete on a level playing field. Thus, in our system, the instructor has teaching, grading, and enforcement roles. You are expected to be familiar with the University's Policy on Academic Honesty, found in the catalog. What that means is: If you are charged with an offense, pleading ignorance of the rules will not help you. Students are responsible for conducting themselves with honor and integrity in fulfilling course requirements. Penalties and/or disciplinary proceedings may be initiated by College System officials against a student accused of scholastic dishonesty. “Scholastic dishonesty”: includes, but is not limited to, cheating on a test, plagiarism, and collusion.

      Cheating on a test includes: Copying from another students’ test paper

      · Using materials not authorized by the person giving the test

      · Collaborating with another student during a test without authorization

      · Knowingly using, buying, selling, stealing, transporting, or soliciting in whole or part the contents of a test that has not been administered

      · Bribing another person to obtain a test that is to be administered.

      Plagiarism means the appropriation of another’s work and the unacknowledged incorporation of that work in one’s own written work offered for credit.

      Collusion means the unauthorized collaboration with another person in preparing written work offered for credit. Possible punishments for academic dishonesty may include a grade of 0 or F in the particular assignment, failure

      in the course, and/or recommendation for probation or dismissal from the College System. (See the Student Handbook)

      It is important that you come to class. Attending class regularly is the best way to succeed in this class. Research has shown that the single most important factor in student success is attendance. Simply put, going to class greatly increases your ability to succeed. You are expected to attend all lecture and labs regularly. You are responsible for materials covered during your absences. You should check with your colleagues using blackboard to see what you missed. It is your responsibility to initiate a withdrawal from this course. As an adult making the decision not to attend, you do not have to notify the instructor prior to missing a class.

      Poor attendance records tend to correlate with poor grades. If you miss any class, including the first week, you are responsible for all material missed. It is a good idea to find a friend or a buddy in class who would be willing to share class notes or discussion or be able to hand in paper if you unavoidably miss a class.

      Use of Camera and/or Recording Devices

      As a student active in the learning community of this course, it is your responsibility to be respectful of the learning atmosphere in your classroom. To show respect of your fellow students and instructor, you will turn off your phone and other electronic devices, and will not use these devices in the classroom unless you receive permission from the instructor.

      Use of recording devices, including camera phones and tape recorders, is prohibited in classrooms, laboratories, faculty offices, and other locations where instruction, tutoring, or testing occurs. Students with disabilities who need to use a recording device as a reasonable accommodation should contact the Office for Students with Disabilities for information regarding reasonable accommodations

      Students with Disabilities

      Any student with a documented disability (e.g. physical, learning, psychiatric, vision, hearing, etc) who needs to arrange reasonable accommodations must contact the appropriate HCC Disability Support Service (DSS) Counselor at the beginning of each semester. Faculty is authorized to provide only the accommodations requested by the Disability Support Services Office.

      Students who are requesting special testing accommodations must first contact the appropriate (most convenient) DSS office for assistance:

      Disability Support Services Offices:

      Central: 713.718.6164 – also for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services and Students Outside of the HCC District service areas.

      Beginning in the Fall 2006, students who repeat a course for a third or more times will face significant tuition/fee increases at HCC and other Texas public colleges and universities. Please ask your instructor and/or counselor about opportunities for tutoring/other assistance prior to considering course withdrawal or if you are not receiving passing grades.

      · If a student decides to drop or withdraw from a class upon careful review of other options, the student can drop online prior to the deadline through their HCC Student Center.

      · HCC and/or instructors may drop students for excessive absences without notification (see Class Attendance below).

      · Students should check HCC’s Academic Calendar by Term for drop/withdrawal dates and deadlines. Classes of other duration (mini-term, flex-entry, 8-weeks, etc.) may have different final withdrawal deadlines. Please contact the HCC Registrar’s Office at 713.718.8500 to determine mini-term class withdrawal deadlines.

      EGLS3 -- Evaluation for Greater Learning Student Survey System

      At Houston Community College, professors believe that thoughtful student feedback is necessary to improve teaching and learning. During a designated time, you will be asked to answer a short online survey of research-based questions related to instruction. The anonymous results of the survey will be made available to your professors and division chairs for continual improvement of instruction. Look for the survey as part of the Houston Community College Student System online near the end of the term.

      As with on-campus classes, all students in HCC Distance Education courses are required to follow all HCC Policies & Procedures, the Student Code of Conduct, the Student Handbook, and relevant sections of the Texas Education Code when interacting and communicating in a virtual classroom with faculty and fellow students. Students who violate these policies and guidelines will be subject to disciplinary action that could include denial of access to course-related email, discussion groups, and chat rooms or being removed from the class.

      Receiving a W in a course may affect the status of your student Visa. Once a W is given for the course, it will not be changed to an F because of the visa consideration. Since January 1, 2003, International Students are restricted in the number of distance education courses that they may take during each semester. ONLY ONE online/distance education class may be counted towards the enrollment requirement for International Students per semester. Please

      contact the International Student Office at 713-718-8520 if you have any questions about your visa status and other transfer issues.

      · Full class attendance is required. Students with more than four unexcused absences may result in an administrative withdrawal. Students are responsible for everything covered during their absence.

      · To avoid disruption in the class room, all pagers and the cell phones must be set on the silence mode.

      · Children or anyone who is not officially enrolled in the course will not be allowed in the laboratory.

      · Eating, drinking or smoking is strictly prohibited in the laboratory.

      · You must read the laboratory safety rules before doing any of the lab exercises.

      · The lab safety release form must be signed during the first lab session.

      · EXAM POLICIES: The following guidelines will govern all exams:

      o The students will not be allowed to leave the classroom before completing an exam.

      o Anyone arriving late will not be allowed to take an exam if any student has completed the exam and left the classroom.

      o All lecture and lab exams will be timed. Students arriving late will not be given extra time to complete an exam.

      o Use of recording devices, including camera phones and tape recorders, is prohibited in classrooms, laboratories, faculty offices, testing centers, and other locations where testing is taking place. Students with disabilities who need to use a recording device as a reasonable accommodation should contact the Office for Students with Disabilities for information regarding reasonable accommodations. Violations of this policy will result in discipline, up to and including termination or expulsion.

      o Students may not use dictionaries or other aids during the exam.

      o Make-up exams will be given only in the event of an emergency. No student may take more than one make-up exam without special permission. Students must e-mail or call the instructor immediately (if possible, on or before the day of the scheduled exam), explain his/her reason for missing the exam, and request a make-up. The instructor will decide if the request is valid.

      o Cheating is not permitted. If it occurs, the students may receive a zero for the exam, or a grade of “F” in the course.

      · Grades will not be posted at any time during the semester. You may receive your final grades at the end of the semester from the Biology Department of via the Internet by logging on to www.getgrades.com or www.hccs.edu or by calling toll free at 1-887-341-4300. Proper identification is required to receive the final grade. The transcripts will be mailed by the HCCS office only if requested by the student.

      · Lab reports are an important part of the course and are due upon completion of the experiment. They will be corrected and graded.

      Helpful Tips Success in this course depends solely on the individual student!

      As your Instructor, it is my responsibility to:

      · Provide the grading scale and detailed grading formula explaining how student grades are to be derived.

      · Facilitate an effective learning environment through activities, study tools, and assignments.

      · Inform students of policies such as attendance, withdrawal, and assessments.

      · Provide the course outline and calendar which will include all the deadlines for the assignments.

      · Arrange to meet with individual students before and after class as required.

      To be successful in this class, it is the student’s responsibility to:

      · Participate in course activities.

      · Read and comprehend the instructional materials.

      · Complete the required assignments and exams.

      · Contact your professor if you have any questions regarding any element of the course you do not understand.

      · Keep copies of all paperwork, including the syllabus, handouts and all assignments.

      · Complete the course with a 70% passing score.

      · HINT: Work hard from the beginning of the semester rather than playing a "catch-up game during the second half of the semester.


      Features

      • Reduced material:
        • The 29 chapters in Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology have become 27 chapters in this slim version. The Axial Skeleton (Chapter 7) and The Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 8) have been combined into one chapter, The Skeleton (Chapter 7), and Neural Integration I (Chapter 15) and Neural Integration II (Chapter 16) have been combined into one chapter, Neural Integration (Chapter 14).
        • The detail in some discussions has been reduced. For example, Chapter 10, The Muscular System, reduces the number of muscles presented, such as some of the skeletal muscles.
        • The Clinical Discussions and The Clinical Notes in Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology have been made more concise without losing any of the key clinical topics (diabetes, AIDS, cancer, etc.).
        • Selected Clinical Terminology, in the end-of-chapter material in Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, has been eliminated.
        • The Aging sections toward the ends of chapters have been eliminated.
        • The Focus sections at the ends of certain chapters (Focus: Cranial Nerves, for example) have been eliminated.
        • Award-winning art and photo program:
          • Compound art provides students with multiple views of the same structure, typically pairing a drawing by medical illustrators Bill Ober and Claire Garrison with a cadaver photograph taken by renowned biomedical photographer Ralph Hutchings. This approach lets students compare the illustrators’ interpretations with photos of the actual structures as they might appear in the laboratory or operating room.
          • Macro-to-micro illustrations help students bridge the gap between familiar and unfamiliar structures of the body by sequencing anatomical views from whole structures to their smaller parts. A typical illustration might combine a simple orientation diagram, indicating where an organ, for example, is located in the human body with a large, vivid painting of the organ, a corresponding sectional view, and a photomicrograph.
          • Timesaving navigation tools:
            • Concept Links, signaled with blue chain link icons, alert students to material that is related to, or builds upon, previous discussions. Each link refers students to a page number so they can quickly review the relevant material from an earlier chapter.
            • Figure reference locators appear next to every figure reference in the narrative. These visible yet unobtrusive red dots help students return to reading after viewing a table or figure.
            • An end-of-chapter, three-level learning system helps build student confidence and understanding through a logical progression from factual questions to conceptual problems to analytical exercises. The variety of questions also gives instructors flexibility in assigning homework from the text. The three-level learning system is carried through review exercises in the print Study Guide and on Martini Online.
            • The Companion Website offers students quick and convenient access to a wealth of interactive review exercises, chapter quizzes, and reference links. An 18-month subscription is included with every new copy of the text. For more information, visit www.aw-bc.com/martini
            • NEW! The Interactive Physiology ® 10-System Suite (IP-10) CD-ROM is packaged with every new copy of the text. This updated CD-ROM now includes the eagerly-awaited 10th module on the Immune System.
            • Powerful Instructor’s Resource CD-ROMs save instructors valuable course preparation time. The four CD-ROMs in the package contain all of the textbook’s art and tables, with and without labels, in both JPEG and PowerPoint ® formats. Also included are fully customizable PowerPoint lectures containing art and text for each chapter as well as Interactive Physiology animations in a format that is ready to use for lecture presentations.

            Biology (BIO)

            Students in this course will explore the following aspects of biology: the organization of life, the development of living organisms, the transmission of traits, evolution, behavior and ecology. This course is intended for the non-science degrees. BIO 100 should not be taken in conjunction with BIO 110 or BIO 111.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Analyze the characteristics of life as currently understood.
            Relate the life characteristics to the simplest level of existence: the single cell.
            Explain various patterns of reproduction among plants and animals.
            Evaluate various techniques of population control.
            Explore the mechanism by which traits are transmitted from parent to offspring.
            Summarize the causes and effects of various types of mutations.
            Trace the history of the modern concept of evolution.
            Survey the system of classification of plants and animals.
            Interpret behavior as an illustration of the modern concept of evolution.
            Relate the sources and the effects of pollutants to the quality of the environment.
            Demonstrate an understanding of laboratory experiments as they relate to the biological concepts presented in the above competencies.

            College Academic Learning Goal Designation: Scientific Reasoning (SI)

            Prerequisites: REA 050 or ENG 099 or REA 075. Appropriate placement test scores may be accepted.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            This course provides an introduction to the study of the design of the natural world and interactions between humans and their environment. It includes an investigation of the impact of human activities on biodiversity, natural resources, availability of energy and contamination of the environment. The scientific, economic and social issues that contribute to environmental problems are also examined. Sustainability principles, policies, and programs are explored on the local, national and global level. This course is an elective designed for non-science majors.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Describe the components of the natural world and analyze their relationships with each other.
            Describe the population dynamics of different species, excluding humans in the biosphere.
            Explain the effects that human activities have on Earth's capacity to sustain biodiversity and natural resources.
            Describe the relationship between human population dynamics and environmental change.
            Analyze the energy alternatives available to meet the demands of the human population on the world's natural resources.
            Identify local, national, global policies that impact the sustainability of natural resources and biodiversity.
            Identify sustainable practices that can help mitigate global environmental problems.
            Describe the effect of economic development and conflict on environmental impact.
            Demonstrate the necessary laboratory skills to measure and analyze environmental parameters.
            Demonstrate an understanding of laboratory experiments as they relate to ecological concepts.

            College Academic Learning Goal Designation: Global Understanding (GU), Scientific Reasoning (SI)

            Prerequisites: REA 050 or ENG 099 or REA 075. Appropriate placement test scores may be accepted.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            General Biology I is designed for majors in biology, natural science and related fields. This course introduces students to the general principles of biology, emphasizing cell structure and function, molecular biology, genetics, and evolution. Students are expected to develop skills in utilizing the scientific method as a tool for problem solving.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Utilize the scientific method to solve problems.
            Describe the chemical structure of biological molecules.
            Relate molecular structure to biological function.
            Describe prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure.
            Relate cellular structure to cell function.
            Explain the processes by which living systems convert solar energy to usable chemical energy.
            Identify the role of genetic material in transmission of traits from generation to generation.
            Relate variability in the transmission of genetic material to biological evolution.
            Critique current theories on the origin of life on Earth.
            Access, interpret, and evaluate peer-reviewed primary scientific literature.
            Demonstrate an ability to utilize modern biology laboratory skills.
            Demonstrate an ability to apply biological concepts to one's life.

            College Academic Learning Goal Designation: Scientific Reasoning (SI)

            Prerequisites: (REA 050 or ENG 099 or REA 075) and (MAT 040 or MAT 050). Appropriate placement test scores may be accepted.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            General Biology II is designed for majors in biology, natural science, and related fields. This course focuses on the structure, function, and diversity of organisms with an emphasis on their evolutionary and ecological relationships.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Relate taxonomic classification to biological evolution.
            Describe patterns and processes of embryological development in animals.
            Relate structure to function in animal organ systems.
            Relate reproductive patterns to classification of the major phyla of plants.
            Characterize the features of selected organisms in the Kingdom Fungi.
            Demonstrate the polyphyletic nature of the Kingdom Protista.
            Characterize the evolutionary and ecological significance of bacteria.
            Discuss the impact of viruses on organisms.
            Interpret the ecological significance of organisms within various taxa.
            Access, interpret, and evaluate peer-reviewed primary scientific literature.
            Demonstrate an ability to utilize modern biology laboratory skills.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            Field Ecology is designed primarily for majors in biology, natural science, and related fields, yet is open to students of all majors. This course introduces students to the general principles of field ecology pertaining to terrestrial, aquatic, and marine habitats. Emphasis will be placed upon regional conservation issues, biodiversity concepts, plant and animal interactions and adaptations, effects of human disturbance on native flora and fauna, and field research techniques. Students are expected to develop and apply skills in field research and in utilizing the scientific method.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Apply the scientific method to test hypotheses.
            Develop and apply skills used to identify, survey, and study plants and animals in a field setting.
            Describe local, regional, and global trends in biodiversity.
            Describe the processes and mechanisms that may affect biodiversity at local, regional, and global scales.
            Develop an appreciation of the ecological and economic value of biologically diverse habitats.
            Develop an appreciation of the value of diverse perspectives in a multicultural setting.

            Prerequisites: (REA 050 or ENG 099 or REA 075) and (MAT 040 or MAT 050). Appropriate placement test scores may be accepted.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            The first course in a two-semester sequence that covers the basic structure and function of the human body using a systems approach. Major topics covered include biological chemistry, cell biology, histology, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, and nervous system. Laboratory work includes dissection, microscopy, models, and experimental demonstration of concepts covered in class. Dissection of preserved animal specimens is required. This course is designed primarily for students majoring in nursing or allied health fields. NOTE: BIO 110 (Introductory Biology I) is suggested, but not required, before enrolling in Human Anatomy & Physiology I.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Demonstrate the correct usage of basic anatomical terminology.
            Describe how the body uses feedback systems to maintain homeostasis.
            Apply basic chemical concepts to the study of human physiology.
            Compare the major organic molecules found in the human body and describe their functions.
            Relate cell ultrastructure to the various functions performed by the cell.
            Compare the major tissues found in the human body and relate their structure and location to specific functions.
            Describe how the structure of the skin contributes to its function.
            Describe the organization and function of the skeletal system.
            Categorize joints according to their structure and function.
            Analyze the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle and explain the mechanism of muscle contraction.
            Demonstrate an understanding of the physiology of nerve impulse generation and propagation.
            Analyze the structure and function of the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
            Analyze the structure and function of the brain and cranial nerves.
            Demonstrate an understanding of how the autonomic nervous system functions to maintain homeostasis.
            Relate the structure and location of the various sensory receptors to the perception of specific sensations.
            Demonstrate an ability to perform modern laboratory skills, including dissection and microscopy.
            Collect and analyze experimental data, formulate appropriate conclusions, and compile lab reports.
            Apply concepts learned in this course to one’s personal health.

            College Academic Learning Goal Designation: Scientific Reasoning (SI)

            Prerequisites: MAT 050 or MAT 060. Appropriate placement test scores may be accepted.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            The second course in a two-semester sequence that covers the basic structure and function of the human body using a systems approach. Major topics covered include the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems along with immunity, metabolism, and fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis. Laboratory work involves dissection, microscopy, models, and experimental demonstration of concepts covered during class. Dissection of preserved animal specimens is required. This course is designed primarily for students majoring in nursing or allied health fields. NOTE: Pre-req requires grade of 'C' or better.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Evaluate the role of hormones in regulating body functions.
            Categorize the components of the blood and describe their functions.
            Demonstrate an understanding of cardiac anatomy and physiology.
            Relate the structure of the blood vessels to the hemodynamics of blood flow.
            Examine the structure and function of the lymphatic system.
            Analyze how the immune system functions to defend the body against disease.
            Demonstrate an understanding of respiratory anatomy and physiology.
            Demonstrate an understanding of digestive anatomy and physiology.
            Analyze how major metabolic pathways are used by the body.
            Examine the role of the urinary system in maintaining homeostasis.
            Assess the body’s ability to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis.
            Relate the structure of the male reproductive system to its function.
            Relate the structure of the female reproductive system to its function.
            Demonstrate an understanding of conception, pregnancy, embryonic and fetal development, including an introduction to human inheritance.
            Demonstrate an ability to perform modern laboratory skills, including dissection and microscopy.
            Collect and analyze experimental data, formulate appropriate conclusions, and compile lab reports.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            A hands on survey of the animal kingdom, with emphasis on evolutionary relationships, form and function, and interactions of animals with their environments. NOTE Pre-Req BIO 111 is recommended but not required.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Integrate evolutionary theory into the study of the phylogeny of animals.
            Distinguish, by comparative biology, the major groups of animals.
            List and describe the distinguishing characteristics of the Kingdom Animalia, including a comparison of the phyla Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata.
            Describe the characteristics, comparative biology, and evolutionary relationships of extant vertebrate classes.
            Describe the physiology of organisms in each of the major phyletic groups.
            Demonstrate the skills required of microscopic examination of animal tissues/specimens and gross animal dissection.
            Access, interpret, and evaluate peer-reviewed, primary literature in the zoological sciences.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            A survey of the major plant groups with an emphasis on basic structure, function, reproductive patterns, biological contributions, development and evolutionary relationships within each group. NOTE Pre-Req BIO 111 is recommended but not required.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Describe basic comparative plant anatomy, morphology, and physiology.
            Describe and recognize the distinguishing characteristics of diverse groups within the Plant Kingdom including bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.
            Discuss the major evolutionary advances in plant form and function.
            Describe life cycles of representative algae, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, gymnosperms and angiosperms and relate to major evolutionary advances in plants and related organisms.
            Explain the importance of botany as a past, present, and future science.
            Describe concepts and theory pertaining to modern plant ecology.
            Demonstrate laboratory and field skills required of examination and identification of plant tissues and specimens.
            Access, interpret and evaluate peer-reviewed, primary scientific literature.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            This is a one semester course covering the basic principles of human nutrition and their application to the maintenance of lifelong health and well-being. It is designed to fulfill the requirements of certain allied health and nursing programs, and so is taught by a dietitian/nutritionist licensed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Essential dietary requirements are introduced along with digestive anatomy and physiology. Food sources, chemistry, and digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats are discussed. Recommended vitamin and mineral intakes are covered, including the detrimental effects of deficient or toxics intakes. Energy balance issues and clinical problems associated with poor nutrition are considered. Students are required to complete an online nutritional assessment of their daily nutrient intake.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Analyze the nutrient requirements for a healthy, balanced nutrition style.
            Perform and interpret an electronic nutritional analysis.
            Relate basic nutrients to various established dietary guidelines.
            Interpret the effects of nutrient deficiencies and megadoses.
            Demonstrate understanding of energy balance and problems associated with energy balance.
            Recognize conditions and diseases which can place patients/clients at nutrition risks.

            3 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours

            Introduction to Microbiology is designed to examine the biology of microorganisms and their significance to human existence. Cellular structures, metabolic pathways and life strategies will be studied. The roles of microorganisms in disease, genetic engineering, and the environment will also be covered. The course is designed for students in the Science for the Health Professions curriculum.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Examine the evolutionary relationships between microorganisms and macroorganisms.
            Describe the cellular biology of single-celled organisms.
            Analyze the impact of microorganisms on humans.
            Analyze the life strategies of various bacterial cells.
            Apply the standard techniques for the study of microorganisms in the laboratory.
            Apply the standard laboratory skills to identify unknown bacteria.
            Describe the properties of the genetic material in bacteria and viruses.
            Explain the role of microorganisms in genetic engineering.
            Examine the role of microorganisms in disease.
            Describe the various strategies used for control of infectious disease.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            2 Weekly Lab Hours

            General Microbiology is intended for Mathematics, Natural Science majors. This course will provide an introduction to the basic concept of microbial evolution, physiology, ecology, genetics and pathogenesis. This course meets the competencies outlined in the Pennsylvania state-wide articulation agreement for preparation in Microbiology.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Describe the characteristics and classifications of various groups of rnicrobes, including bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, helminthes, prions, viruses and vitoids.
            Describe the structure and function of the cellular structure of prokarotes and eukaryotes.
            Describe the metabolic pathways utilized by prokaryotes including glycolytic pathways, fermentation, respiration, and photosynthesis.
            Describe methods of prokaryotic reproduction and interpret a bacterial growth curve.
            Describe gene expression, regulation and transfer in prokaryotes.
            Explain strategies of viral infection and replication.
            Explain the major steps in the evolution of life on Earth.
            Describe the symbiotic relationships the microbes have with other organisms, including mutualism, parasitism and commensalism.
            Explain the role of microbes in biogeochemical cycles and the production of commercially and medically important materials.
            Examine the role of microorganisms in disease.
            Access, interpret and evaluate peer-reviewed primary scientific literature.
            Demonstrate safe laboratory practices and competency in the use of aseptic procedures for the safe handling of live microbes.
            Use laboratory techniques to identify an "unknown" organism.
            Apply standard techniques used for the study of microorganisms in the laboratory.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            3 Weekly Lab Hours

            Genetics examines how molecular information relates to the appearance and behavior of living things and how this information is transferred from one organism to another. Course topics include Mendelian genetics, DNA replication, gene expression, chromosomal structure, population genetics, evolution, and current laboratory techniques used to study genetic material and heredity in living organisms. This course meets the competencies outlined in the Pennsylvania Statewide Program-to Program Articulation Agreement in Biology for preparation in Genetics and is designed for Mathematics-Natural Sciences (MNS) students.

            Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to:
            Relate the principles of Mendelian genetics to the underlying molecular mechanisms of inheritance.
            Apply the principles of Mendelian genetics to genetic crosses.
            Describe how the nucleic acid sequences (genotype) relates to the physical characteristics and abilities of an organism (phenotype).
            Examine the processes of DNA replication, mitosis, and meiosis and how these processes result in genetic variation between organisms.
            Describe the structure of chromosomes and how genetic information of organisms is packaged.
            Relate genetic principles to the process of evolution.
            Describe and apply current genetic models of inheritance in populations.
            Examine modern genetic and genomic techniques, analysis, and manipulation.
            Apply standard laboratory techniques used in genetics, including production and analysis of genetic crosses, microscopic study of chromosomes, DNA isolation, electrophoresis, handing and genetic analysis of microbes, restriction digests, and bacterial transformation.
            Design, conduct, and evaluate a genetic cross.

            4 Credits 3 Weekly Lecture Hours
            3 Weekly Lab Hours

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            Glossary: Ti - Tz

            For most phrases beginning with directional words, e.g. "posterior," "dorsal," "external," etc., or some generic anatomical terms, e.g., "vena," look under the next word in the phrase. However, note that this convention is not used with complete consistency in this Glossary.

            A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

            Tibia the larger and more medial of the two lower leg bones. See image of Bison tibia below. Image © Prof. Larry Todd, of Colorado State Univ. Used by permission.

            Tibial trochlea as the name implies, a trochlea on the proximal end of the astragalus which allows the ankle to rotate anteroposteriorly on the end of the tibia.

            Tibiale the astragalus, one of the proximal tarsals (ankle bones). Primitively, it links the tibia with the distal tarsals, particularly the navicular. The term tibiale is not often used except for Paleozoic tetrapods and in some veterinary literature. There may or may not be a distinction between the tibiale and the astragalus, as some workers hold that the astragalus derives from a fusion of the tibiale, proximal centrale and intermedium. Another synonym is talus, is used in medical work.

            Tibiotarsus In birds, the fused unit comprising the tibia, fibula and (perhaps) some tarsal elements.

            Tiffanian One of the North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA) corresponding roughly to the Late Paleocene and dated at roughly 58-62 My. The Tiffanian is often subdivided into Tiffanian substages I through IV.

            Tillite usually, of glacial origin. A mass of unconsolidated, poorly sorted rock debris left by glacial action or mass wasting (landslide, flood, avalanche, etc.) of some other kind. Image from Physical Geology Slides, Steven Dutch, U. Wisconsin -- Green Bay. The original pile of rock is till, usually part of a hedgerow of rock left by a glacier, i.e. a moraine. It may be left at the terminus of a glacier, in which case it's called a terminal moraine. Alternatively, it may be loose material pushed out of the way as the glacier advances, a lateral moraine. Considered as a type of rock, this is called tillite. When the tillite has fully consolidated and (typically) is gummed together with clay-sized particles, it may be referred to as diamictite.

            Tithonian the last age of the Jurassic Late Jurassic), 151-144 Mya.

            Tiumpampa a town in Bolivia. See Santa Lucia Formation.

            Tomes process a terminal process of ameloblasts which orients and controls the growth of enamel prisms in the developing teeth of mammals. See image at Teeth.

            Tomiumthe cutting edge of the beak in birds. Raptorial birds often have a tomial tooth, a pointed area of the tomium which works a bit like a canine, or even a carnassial.

            Tongue River Formation See Bullion Creek Formation.

            Torque A shorthand definition might be "force times distance." In a rigid system, the torque exerted by a force with respect to any reference point is the distance between the reference point and the point where the force is applied multiplied by the component of the force normal to the line between them. More precisely, it is a vector quantity with magnitude equal to this product and direction equal to the direction of the force normal to the line between the reference point and the point at which the force is applied. In English, imagine Hamlet holds the skull of Yorik straight out from his body. The torque exerted by Yorik's skull on Hamlet's shoulder is the length of Hamlet's arm multiplied by the weight of Yorik's skull. Note that if the skull is raised or lowered, the torque decreases. The distance remains the same, but the forces directed normal (i.e. 90 degrees) to the line between skull and shoulder are decreased (specifically, by a factor equal to the cosine of the angle from the horizontal). When Salome holds the head of John the Baptist straight over her head, the torque on her shoulder is near zero because the force is directed along the line of her arm, rather then at 90 degrees to it (cos(90) = 0), permitting her to perform the sinuous and erotic Dance of the Seven Veils, which Hamlet couldn't manage.

            Torrejonian StageA North American land mammal stage (62-59 Mya), corresponding to the Middle Paleocene Epoch or Selandian Age.

            Torso in aquatic tetrapods, the section of the body providing undulatory motion. In aquatic mammals, the lumbar vertebrae and lumbarized vertebrae of the thorax, sacrum and tail. See Buchholtz 1998).

            Torus [1] a donut shape [2] A bony elevation or protuberance of normal bone. For example, the swelling seen on the upper palate behind the front teeth or under the tongue inside the lower jaw. CIGNA.com - News & Learning: Glossaries.

            Totipalmate of bird feet, having all 4 toes, including hallux, contained in a single web.

            Trabeculae In early development, two pairs of cartilaginous rods form parallel to the notochord in the cranium: the anterior trabeculae and the posterior parachordals. These form the foundation for the development of the braincase. See diagram at The Braincase.

            Trabecular as applied to bone and related materials: spongy bone, as opposed to either lamellar, acellular periostial bone or, more generally, cortical bone. Trabecular bone is generally characterized as a cellular solid, or foam.

            Trans-acting factors factors, usually considered to be proteins, that bind to the cis-acting sequences to control gene expression. See Cis-acting Elements and Trans-acting Factors.

            Transduction signal transduction is very hot with our molecular brethren right now. It refers to the biochemical or biophysical translation of information from one type of signal to another. For a more physiological example, see The Ear.

            Transgression periods of high sea level, when sea water flooded previously terrestrial regions. Opposite of regression.

            Transverse a somewhat confusing directional term indicating extension at right angles to some other axis. When used without a clear referent, it usually describes a structure extending at right angles to the long axis of the body mediolaterally (not dorsoventrally). In mammalian dentition, where all terminology is more difficult, "transverse" generally refers to linguobuccal extension. Thus "transversely compressed" teeth means thin, blade-like teeth, even if we are referring to incisors, in which this would indicate antero-posterior compression because they are at the front of the mouth.

            Transverse flange(or process)of the pterygoid. A lateral process of the pterygoid, a palatal bone. See image.

            Transverse process of the vertebrae, a lateral process of the neural arch which bears the articulations for the ribs. See diagram at diapophysis. Perhaps, anyway. It has also been said that this term has been used for so many non-homologous vertebral structures that it has no fixed meaning at all.

            Transverse septum The fibrous partition that separates the pericardial and pleuroperitoneal cavities of the coelom. The transverse septum is invaded by the hepatic diverticulum which differentiates into the liver. The posterior (or ventral, depending on the organism) wall of the septum them becomes the serosa covering the hepatic tissues.

            Transverse ventral fissure in the braincase of basal tetrapods, a transverse ventral fissure is the last remnant of the deep sarcopterygian division of the brain into separate otoccipital and sphenethmoid (posterior and anterior) halves.

            Trapezium in mammalian osteology, one of distal carpals, normally associated with Mc I and the scaphoid. See image at unciform.

            Trapezoid in mammalian osteology, one of distal carpals, normally associated with Mc II, the scaphoid and the (medial) centrale. See image at unciform.

            Tremadoc Age The first age of the Ordovician Period, 488-479 Mya. See Tremadoc.

            Trenchant of dentition, sharp, cutting. Sometimes, more figuratively, sharply defined.

            Triassic Period The first period of the Mesozoic, 248-206 Mya. The Early Tertiary (248-242 Mya) includes the Induan and Olenekian Ages. The Middle Tertiary (242-227 Mya) refers to the Anisian and Ladinian Ages. The Late Tertiary (227-206 Mya) is comprised of the Carnian, Norian and Rhaetian Ages.

            Tribosphenic molar See Molars.

            Triceps a muscle of the forelimb. The triceps originates on the proximal humerus, the scapula and the coracoid. It inserts on the olecranon process of the ulna and acts to extend the lower part of the limb.

            Triceps tubercle a tubercle which projects laterally from the lateral side of the humerus, just below the proximal head and serves as a sort of gathering point for combining muscle fibers contributing to the triceps muscle.

            Trigeminal nerveCranial nerve V. Called "trigeminal" because it typically has three branches which may exit the braincase separately: the maxillary, mandibular and ophthalmic branches. The maxillary branch provides sensory nerves to the palate and teeth. The mandibular branch carries both motor and sensory nerves of the lower jaw, as well as the tensor tympani. The ophthalmic branch, in mammals, carries sensory information from the face, particularly the area around the eyes and nose. See Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves.

            Trigeminal notch a notch on the anterior face of the prootic (that is, at the front of the otic capsule) where the trigeminal (Vth) nerve exits the braincase. See Braincase Overview.

            Trigon The basic 3-cusped tooth of early mammals the main, triangular unit of the upper tribosphenic molar. The trigon is defined by its main cusps at the vertices: the protocone (lingual), metacone distal or posterior) and the paracone (mesial or anterior). See Molars.

            Trigonid The main, triangular unit of the lower tribosphenic molar. The trigonid is defined by its main cusps at the vertices: the protoconid (buccal), metaconid (distolingual) and the paraconid (mesiolingual). See figure at talonid. See also, Molars.

            Trilobate having three lobes.

            Triosseal canal passage through the pectoral girdle formed by the coracoid, scapula and furcula. In birds, this is the route through which the supracoracoideus tendon inserts on the dorsal surface of the humerus. The canal thus acts as the block through which the tendon passes and which converts the ventral pull of the muscle contraction into a dorsally directed force on the humerus.

            Triploblasts Animals possessing three basic germ layers: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. As a practical matter, this includes all known except sponges, Cnidarians, Ctenophores, acoelomate worms (probably), and Ediacaran forms.

            Tripus one of the ossicles of the Weberian apparatus. The tripus is in contact with the swim bladder and moves in response to volume changes in the swim bladder as it responds to external sound. In turn, it articulates with the intercalarium (= interclary?) Lecture 6. See also image at claustrum.

            Triramous having three branches.

            Tritor (adjective, tritoral) in Holocephali, the hypermineralized (enameloid) areas of the dental plates corresponding to but not necessarily homologous with) individual tooth crowns.

            Trochanter a prominent tuberosity (especially? only?) on the femur which provides an attachment site for muscles.

            Trochanter, anterior [1] (of the femur) probably the same as the lesser trochanter. [2] (of the fibula) probably the same as the illiofibularis tubercle.

            Trochanteric shelf see figure.

            Trochlea a spool-shaped area of bone which provides a smooth articular area for rotation on another bone. For example, the trochlea on the distal humerus articulates with the proximal ulna. Particularly good pictures of a trochlea (the tibial trochlea) may be found at Protocetidae.

            Trochlear nerve Cranial nerve IV, which supplies the superior oblique muscle of the eye. See figure at rectus muscles see also discussion and figures of the gnathostome orbit.

            Trujillo Formation Early Eocene and possibly Late Paleocene of northwestern Venezuela, East of Lake Maracaibo. Patterson 1977).

            Trunkthe main part of the body, exclusive of the limbs, tail and head.

            Tuberculum the dorsal process of a rib which articulates with the diapophysis on the neural arches. The shaft of the rib normally originates at or near the tuberculum.

            Tuberculum intermedium see metastylid.

            Tuberosity a large projection with a rough surface to which muscles, ligaments, or tendons are attached.

            Tuff a sediment composed of volcanic particles.

            Turbinal see concha and Ethmoid.

            Turbinate [1]same as turbinal. See concha and Ethmoid. [2] shaped like a top.

            Turkey Branch Formation Late Triassic (Carnian?) of Virginia. Traversodonts (Boreogomphodon), archosaurs (Euscolosuchus) and others, disarticulated in mudstone with plant debris. Sues 1992)

            Turonianan age of the Late Cretaceous Late Cretaceous), about 93.5-89.0 Mya.

            Tusk pair in basal tetrapods, the palatal bones often bore a pair of relatively large, sharp, frequently recurved teeth. This "pair" actually consists of a single tusk and a replacement pit.

            Two Medicine Formation Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Montana,

            75 Mya. Dinosaurs (including eggs), pterosaurs, Daspletosaurus. Floodplain with lacustrine and overbank river deposits. Varricchio 2001)

            Tympanic in mammals, the bone that forms the auditory bulla.

            Type A term used alone, or forming part of a compound term, to denote a particular kind of specimen or taxon.

            Type locality The geographical place of capture or collection of the name-bearing type of a nominal species or subspecies. If the name-bearing type was captured or collected after being transported by boat, vehicle, aircraft, or other human or mechanical means, the type locality is the place from which it, or its wild progenitor, began its unnatural journey.

            Type specimen the specimen in systematic biology to which the name of the species is attached. The concept of a given species, however, is based, when available, on additional specimens besides the type.

            Type species a single species on which the concept of a genus is based generitype. Although many species may be included in a genus, a generic taxon is based on a single type species.


            Neuroscience For Kids

            • Chocolate and the Nervous System
            • Do We Use Only 10% of our Brain?
            • Laughter and the Brain
            • Oh Say Can You Say. The Brain and Language
            • Nutrition and the Brain
            • "Smart" Drugs?
            • The Musical Brain
            • The Brain vs. The Computer
            • What Became of Albert Einstein's Brain?
            • Eugene O'Neill: What Went Wrong?
            • Yawning: Why We Yawn and Why They are "Contagious"
            • Moonstruck: Does the Full Moon Influence Behavior?
            • Synesthesia
            • Neuroscience at the Movies
            • Brain "Plasticity": Learning and Memory
            • Face Recognition

            The Spinal Cord

            The Peripheral Nervous System

            The Neuron

            • Millions and Billions of Cells: Types of Neurons
            • Making Connections: The Synapse
            • Gallery of Neurons
            • The Sounds of Neuroscience
            • The Synapse - Up Close and Personal
            • Lights, Camera, Action Potential
            • Glia: The Forgotten Brain Cell
            • Dangerous Chemicals: Neurotoxins - Source and Effect
            • Neurotransmitters and Neuroactive Peptides
            • Chemical Weapons: Nerve Agents
            • Conduction Velocity
            • Salty What? Saltatory Conduction

            Sensory Systems

            • The Skin and its Sensory Receptors
            • Pain and Why it Hurts
            • The Tooth
            • I Spy. The Eye
            • The Retina
            • The Visual Pathway
            • Do you wear glasses? Find out why!
            • Eye Safety Tips
            • Hear Ye, Hear Ye - The Ear
            • How the Nose Knows - The Nose
            • That's Tasty!
            • Does the COLOR of Foods and Drinks Affect Their Taste?

            Neuroscience Methods and Techniques

            The Effects of Drugs on the Nervous System

            • Alcohol
            • Amphetamines
            • Barbiturates
            • Bath Salts
            • Caffeine
            • Cocaine
            • Ecstasy
            • GHB
            • Hallucinogenic Mushrooms
            • Heroin
            • Inhalants
            • LSD
            • Marijuana
            • Nicotine
            • PCP
            • Rohypnol
            • 1,4-Butanediol

            Neurological and Mental Disorders

            • Alzheimer's Disease
            • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
            • Asperger's Syndrome
            • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
            • Autism
            • Bacterial Meningitis
            • Bipolar Disorder
            • Common Eye Diseases and Disorders
            • Dyslexia - I
            • Dyslexia - II
            • Epilepsy
            • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
            • Gulf War Syndrome
            • Huntington's Disease
            • Lead and the Nervous System
            • Lyme Disease
            • Mad Cow Disease
            • Mercury and the Nervous System
            • Multiple Sclerosis
            • Narcolepsy
            • Parkinson's Disease
            • Polio
            • Rabies
            • Restless Legs Syndrome
            • Schizophrenia
            • Soccer and the Brain (Heading for Injury?)
            • Spina Bifida
            • Stroke
            • Tourette Syndrome
            • Transient Ischemic Attack
            • West Nile Virus
            • Zika Virus 1 | Zika Virus 2


            Watch the video: Chapter 15 Brain and Cranial Nerves Part1 (January 2022).