Information

If oxygen is such a good energy source, why do plants release it?


Why do plants release excess oxygen, rather than consuming it entirely given it is an excellent energy source?


Short answer
Plants release O2, because it is not an energy source. Instead, it is used to free energy from energy-rich organic compounds.

Background
Plants are solar powered. They release oxygen as a waste product during carbon fixation. Carbon fixation is basically the storage of solar power into carbon-bonds in glucose, a process referred to as photosynthesis or the Calvin Cycle.

To release the solar energy from glucose it has to be burned (oxidized). Oxidation of glucose can be realized via the the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle) and electron transport chain to generate ATP. O2 only comes in in the very last step by acting as the final electron acceptor to produce H2O (Fig. 1.)


Fig. 1. Electron transport chain in mitochondria. Electrons are sent through a chain of proteins that drive hydrogen transport out of the mitochondrial space. ATP-synthase uses the proton gradient to generate ATP. Source: Davis University College

Hence, O2 is not the source of energy, it is merely used to free it from energy rich compounds such as glucose. Because it is so abundant in the atmosphere, it doesn't make sense to store it.

Reference
- Berg et al., Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: W H Freeman (2002)


Why are lipids not used a the main source of energy?

Lipids are not used as the main source of energy as these can't be converted easily into substrate for cellular respiration that releases energy.

Explanation:

Glucose is the basic substrate for cellular respiration, that releases energy in the form of ATPs to be used for all metabolic activities.

The carbohydrates are stored as reserved food in the form of starch in plants and glycogen in animals.

Both starch and glycogen can easily be converted into glucose by simple metabolic enzymatic reactions reactions For example starch can easily be hydrolyzed into glucose in presence of water and enzyme starch phosphorylase.

Lipids are much richer source of energy. But still these are not used as the main source of energy as these are not converted into glucose directly, the basic respiratory substrate. The entry of lipid into respiratory metabolism occurs at different levels and involves lengthy metabolic reactions.

A lipid molecule is triglyceride, composed of one glycerol and 3 molecules of long chain fatty acids. Firstly, a lipid molecule is hydrolyzed into glycerol and 3 molecules of fatty acids.

Glycerol enters into glycolysis as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.
Each fatty acid molecule is converted into many molecules of
acetyl co-enzyme A, step-wise during beta-oxidation.
Acetyl co-enzyme A enters at the starting level of citric acid cycle, the second step in aerobic respiration.

Thus carbohydrates are used as main source of energy, because these are much easily made available as respiratory substrate in spite of the fact that lipids are much richer source of energy as compared to the carbohydrates. Lipids are used in respiration only when carbohydrates are not available.


3 Answers 3

You are aware that there exist photosynthesizers that do not use oxygen. You could read up on those.

The purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are part of a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, collectively referred to as purple bacteria. Unlike plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria do not use water as their reducing agent, and therefore do not produce oxygen. Instead, they can use sulfur in the form of sulfide, or thiosulfate (as well, some species can use H2, Fe2+, or NO2−) as the electron donor in their photosynthetic pathways.[4]

The waste product consumed by the PSB is H2S or hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is produced by sulfur reducing bacteria. Just as we reduce oxygen with our metabolism and produce water, these bacteria reduce oxidized sulfur compounds and produce H2S.

Sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) or sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) are a group composed of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfate-reducing archaea (SRA), both of which can perform anaerobic respiration utilizing sulfate (SO42–) as terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to hydrogen sulfide (H2S).[1][2] Therefore, these sulfidogenic microorganisms "breathe" sulfate rather than molecular oxygen (O2), which is the terminal electron acceptor reduced to water (H2O) in aerobic respiration.

In these ecosystems, sulfur fills the role of oxygen. In an anaerobic environment like a sewage treatment lagoon, sulfate reducers break down solids and generate H2S. Purple sulfur bacteria then use the H2S and sunlight to do photosynthesis. H2S can be a gas too, if your question mandates a gas atmosphere.

Yes. In fact, there are quite a few options.

Willk has already mentioned sulfur. In this case, primary producers produce solid sulfur as an anabolic waste product, which consumers must eat along with the rest of their food, rather than breathing in. (Unless, of course, they are from the planet Sar, which is hot enough that sulfur exists as an atmospheric gas, and molten copper chloride stands in for water.) Actual sulfur producing bacteria tend to accumulate crystals of sulfur in their cells, rather than releasing it all directly into the environment, so you could expect sulfur-producing plants to do the same, as they have even bigger excretion logistics problems than unicellular photosynthesizers do!

Some real-world bacteria can also perform carbon fixation using free hydrogen directly, in environments where free hydrogen exists. And there are organisms that generate hydrogen from the anaerobic respiration / fermentation. So, theoretically, there could be a cycle there however, in practice, if you have a lot of hydrogen in the air, as well s carbon dioxide, they will spontaneously react over time (or not so spontaneously, as organisms can get energy by catalyzing the reaction themselves, which is exactly what methanogens do on Earth) until one or the other is depleted.

In a sulfuric acid world, plants could acquire hydrogen from sulfuric acid, producing solid sulfur trioxide or gaseous sulfur dioxide as a waste product, which consumers would then eat or breathe in place of diatomic oxygen. Such worlds are also likely to have a lot of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid around, which given sufficiently energetic light to work with, or photosystems which can accumulate energy from multiple photons (or work around it by just generating ATP / the local equivalent until there's enough of that around to power the reaction) could also be split to acquire hydrogen. I would not, however, expect the release of straight Cl2 of F2 gas, however, as those are highly reactive (maybe on a really cold world around an F-class star. )--rather, I'd expect to see them bound up in metal complexes (just like iron-oxidizing bacteria do with oxygen), or halocarbons--gaseous carbon tetrachloride and carbon tetrafluoride. Unfortunately, those are very stable chemicals, so they won't be very useful for completing an ecological cycle with consumers. Rather, you'd expect them to be feedstock for further exotic anabolic processes--extra sources of carbon and less-reactive forms of halogens.

Like the sulfuric acid world, but more plausible, while I am not aware of any Earthling organisms that do this, photoautotrophs could also acquire hydrogen (as carbon, and sometimes oxygen) and reducing potential from simple organic molecules, like methane, methanol, ethanol, acetate, etc., with more heavily oxidized organic molecules as the waste product. For example, in a world with a CO2/methane atmosphere, plants could rip hydrogen off of methane to produce ethane, ethylene, and/or acetylene gas as byproducts, which would be breathed in by consumers to regenerate gaseous methane for producers to consume and repeat the cycle.

Of course, acetylene is a pretty good energy storage molecule all by itself, and ethane is a good place to start building longer alkane and alkene chains, so as in the case of the sulfuric acid world these really aren't "waste" products like oxygen so much as they are additional useful products of photosynthesis, of which there is sometimes an excess which is useful to other organisms.

In a world with a slightly more heavily reducing environment, you can expect a decent amount of ammonia to be available. Stripping hydrogen from ammonia is easier than stripping it from water (although if you only go part way, you get some very energetic molecules, like hydrazine--the ammonious equivalent to hydrogen peroxide), so it would not be unexpected for that, rather than the less-abundant hydrogen sulfide or the more tightly-bound water to serve as hydrogen donor and source of reducing potential. The waste product in this case is nitrogen, which is famously not easily breathable,as dinitrogen is a very stable molecule that does not like reacting with anything. Except, it does react slightly exothermically with hydrogen to give you back your original ammonia, completing the cycle there are no (known) organisms on Earth which can acquire energy through nitrogen reduction, because Earth is a highly oxidizing environment, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria have to expend more energy than ammonia production gains them in order to acquire the necessary reduction potential in the first place, but that situation does not hold in this hypothetical environment. So, your consumers would presumably perform hydrogenic fermentation and nitrogen fixation for a positive energy yield in both processes, closing the nitrogen-ammonia cycle instead of the oxygen-water cycle.

And in an even more strongly reducing environment, where excess hydrogen has destroyed all CO2 in the atmosphere, leaving behind free hydrogen, methane, water, and ammonia, your producers will be producing waste hydrogen rather than waste oxygen or nitrogen, and looking to acquire chemical oxdizing potential rather than reduction potential for anabolic processes. The consumers will not excrete any single gaseous molecular species to close the cycle, but the whole gamut of fully-reduced water, methane, and ammonia to resupply the producers with raw materials.

And of course, as a final note: in none of these cases should you necessarily expect glucose specifically, with its specific elemental ratios, to remain the go-to energy storage and structural molecule produced by alien photosynthesis. It wouldn't even be stable on a sulfuric acid world, and other types of molecules--like alkenes or organonitrogen compounds--will be competing for some of its functions in exotic chemical environments. Heck, even on Earth, there are organisms that get most of their energy from metabolism of fats and/or proteins rather than sugars, and the components of those cycles may end up more important than the basic oxygen-water cycle or its local equivalents.


Nutrient Cycle

Nutrient Cycles

All nutrient cycles have once sequence:

  • Nutrient is taken up by producers as simple, inorganic molecules.
  • Producer incorporates nutrient into complex organic molecules.
  • When the producer is eaten, the nutrient passes into consumers.
  • Nutrient then passes onto secondary, tertiary or quaternary consumers.
  • When the producers and consumers die, their complex molecules are broken down by decomposers that release the nutrient in its original simple form.


Why do we still burn fossil fuels to produce energy?

The answer is rather complicated and can vary, although there are a few common reasons for why we continue to use fossil fuels.

Lower costs

First and foremost, it is an issue of cost. Our economies have been built around the use of fossil fuels. To change, we would need to develop clear plans that provide predictability so that businesses can switch to renewable sources of energy, such as solar or wind energy.

Even when governments propose ambitious plans for renewable energy transition, their success requires buy-in from fossil fuel companies, which have accumulated over the decades a lot of wealth and have become important industry stakeholders. In other words, transition to clean energy is no easy task, especially when fossil fuels are cheaper compared to alternative sources of energy and in many cases are subsidized by governments.

Fossil fuel prices are low despite concerns regarding limited reserves. This is due to a number of reasons, including previously inaccurate assessment of already identified reserves, or the fact that today the technology for identifying a potential reserve and quantifying its potential have also evolved enormously [3] .

Ease and familiarity with fossil fuel energy

Ease and familiarity of fossil fuels is probably the biggest reason for not switching to other kinds of fuels. Many people simply do not want to make the switch due to the ease of keeping the status quo. Like the saying goes: “if it’s not broke, don’t fix it.”

For example, many people choose not to buy electric cars because they do not want the hassle of remembering to charge their car. It’s much easier to stop at the gas station in the morning on the way to the office because that is what people have been doing for decades.

Switching to new sources of energy requires a mentality change from consumers. Beyond “not in my backyard” arguments where consumers have objected to renewable sources of energy being built close to where they live – particularly wind turbines – consumers will also need to have a more active role if we are to adopt renewable energy on larger scale. This is because it is unlikely that a fully renewable energy future will rely on the same centralized distribution of energy like we have right now.

Lack of knowledge

The lack of knowledge is closely linked to the ease and familiarity mentioned above. This problem encompasses a lack of knowledge about possibilities that renewable energy brings and different alternatives, but it can be even a lack of knowledge about the dangers of continuous use of fossil fuels.

There are very few people who have visited a coal-fired power plant, have been to an oil rig, or seen the process of hydraulic fracturing for natural gas and have witnessed the pollution and environmental degradation first-hand. Additional problem is that some people simply do not or do not want to believe in climate change or protecting the environment, so they do not feel the need to change the current energy source as long as the power income is stable and satisfactory.

Infrastructure

Fossil fuel energy resources — oil, coal and natural gas — have been fundamental to our economy and society for decades. Ever since the Industrial Revolution in the second half of the 18th century, coal has been used to power machinery and different transport modes while other forms of energy gradually joined the modern energy mix to achieve the best outcome.

Today, most energy is distributed to households and businesses through one central source. This can be the main power grid supplying electricity or natural gas pipeline network leading to each house. Throughout the developed world, power grid lines, natural gas pipelines, power plants and other necessary infrastructure has been in place for many years. During this time, the whole network has been set up in a way that is easy to maintain and efficient for consumers and suppliers, readily and steadily supplying energy for daily life functioning.

This is one of the reasons that hinders faster transition away from fossil fuels because currently used grids can run without changing technical components with maximum 10 percent of renewably produced power. With higher percentage of renewable energy, the grid has to be optimized to be able to switch between different renewable systems as needed. This might be a difficult and costly quest for the developed countries with complex energy infrastructure already in place [4] .

Limited access to renewable energy

In some areas of the world, renewable energy can be quite inaccessible. For example, people living remotely or people living in an apartment building might have logistical problems in obtaining and installing solar photovoltaic panels.

Accessibility can refer to local availability but it can also include cost. Many people cannot make the switch due to the cost of renewable energy. Costs of renewable energy options vary dramatically from place to place, and using exclusively renewable energy can be cost-prohibitive in many cases due to factors such as lack of government support or low income.

The state of renewable energy today

Major advancements have been made in terms of efficiency and storage when it comes to renewable energy. It is true that renewable energy is becoming increasingly more competitive with fossil fuels. For example, solar electricity is now cheaper to produce in Dubai than electricity coming from gas turbines [6] and some countries are increasingly powering their energy needs with renewables.

At the same time, we have witnessed a number of technology breakthroughs, such as the Tesla Powerwall, a home battery that can power most homes during the evening using electricity generated by solar panels or the utility grid during the day.

But to be able to use renewable energy anytime, anywhere and most importantly as much as we need to, we need a transition period. And unavoidably, among the energy sources that will make up our energy mix during that transition period, we will have to include some non-renewable energy sources.


Top 15 Positive Energy Plants That Bring Good Energy:

Here is The List of Best Positive Plants at Home.

1. Snake Plant

Scientific Name: Sansevieria trifasciata

Also Called: “The bedroom plant”

Recently, snake plants have gotten much recognition among the most preferred indoor plants for positive energy. The underlying reason is the twofold benefits that it has to offer. First, it absorbs particulate matter and VOCs from the environment thus, creating a healthy environment. Second, it emits cheerful vibes and attracts positive energy with its vibrant color.

An Interesting About This Positive Plant: Snake plant was one of few plants that were chosen by NASA for study on how plants can be used for air purification and to combat “sick building syndrome.”

A Life Lesson To Learn From Snake Plant: Snake plants require low maintenance and they even grow through tough conditions. This can work as a reminder for you to strive and thrive through challenging times, just to come out more resilient!

2. Peace Lily

Scientific Name: Spathiphyllum

Also Called: “White sail”

According to Feng Shui, this plant symbolizes tranquility and peace. Along with this, it works as a source of positive radiation in the surrounding and purifying the air. This Plant is also found to reduce the chances of headaches and boost your mental health. Peace Lily can grow in a low light location as well, so you can put it in your bedroom or bathroom.

An Interesting About This Positive Plant: Peace Lily gets its name from the Greek word “spath” which means “spoon” and “phyl” meaning leaves. As the leaves of peace lily resemble spoons.

A Life Lesson To Learn From Peace Lily: This plant is a symbol of peace, tranquility, and solitude. Which keeps on reminding us to be at peace with ourselves and those around us. It inspires you to be calm and stay positive.

3. Cactus

Scientific Name: Cactaceae

Also Called: “Desert cactus”

The saying… “Don’t judge a book by its cover” holds true for cactus plants. Many people hold the opposite view for this beautiful plant because of the thorns it has. However, that is not the case! In fact, this indoor plant is a powerhouse of positive vibes. They not only aid in fighting off gloominess but anxiety as well. What makes it even a better choice is its ability to soak up electromagnetic energy from the electronic devices in your home (isn’t that just WOW).

An Interesting About This Positive Plant: Having a cactus plant in your work environment can increase productivity upto 12%.

A Life Lesson To Learn From Cactus Plant: This plant truly symbolises growth (even in the toughest of situations). This desert plant grows and blooms beautifully in difficult situations, inspiring you to never give up in life.

4. Bamboo Plant

Scientific Name: Bambusoidaea

It is a plant of positivity and a sign of purity and life. This ornamental plant provides happiness and serenity by keeping jealousy at bay! Apart from being a low-maintenance plant it also symbolizes good fortune. It is likely to bring harmony and prosperity in your life. There is a philosophical lesson that this plant has to offer-

“Never give up and always aim for better things in life.”

An Interesting About This Positive Plant: Bamboo is the fastest growing plant on the planet. A study has also shown that even viewing a bamboo plant can bring physiological relaxation effects in individuals.

A Life Lesson To Learn From Bamboo Plant: Apart from the philosophical message shared above, there is another important lesson to learn here. The plant surely inspires to keep moving forward in life.

5. Chinese Money Plant

Scientific Name: Eucalyptus cinerea

Also Called: “Silver Dollar”

This not so common indoor plant improves the flow of positive energy in the house if kept in a corner without direct sunlight. The unusual round-shaped leaves are likely to add the element of exoticness in your house or cabin. It is also going to alleviate anxiety and stress from your surroundings and life.

An Interesting About This Positive Plant: Eucalyptus flowers have no petals and it is a great plant to have indoors to prevent malaria.

A Life Lesson To Learn From Eucalyptus Plant: “Be in the present, live it, and enjoy it.” This is the mantra that eucalyptus teaches us. With its fresh fragrance

6. Golden Pothos

Scientific Name: Aloe barbadensis miller

The presence of this plant is likely to radiate positive vibes and cleanse negative ones. But, that’s not it! A study found that by merely touching its leaves an effect of peacefulness and calmness can be felt on the mind.

Apart from this, looking at this helps eyes to relax when you’re feeling a little irritated or congested. All of this clubbed together makes golden pothos an ideal plant for positive energy for houses, offices and even study areas.

7. Jade Plant

Scientific Name: Pilea peperomioides

A low maintenance positive energy plant that blooms delicate pink or pink flowers definitely holds the power of uplifting your mood. Feng Shui enthusiasts support that this plant can calm the environment and bring down the stress level in the immediate environment. It is suggested to place it either at the front door or at the back door of your house.

8. Calatheas

Scientific Name: Epipremnum aureum

This colorful foliage makes this plant a unique source for decoration. What makes it even beautiful is the fact that it closes it leaves at night and opens them in the morning. Similarly, it intakes all negative vibes from the house, absorbs it, transforms them into positive radiation, and spreads them by opening their leaves.

9. Morning Glory

Scientific Name: Crassula ovata

This plant bears gorgeous and subtle color flowers which will bring peace and tranquility in your life. However, apart from this, if it is kept under the pillow before you doze off it facilitates sound sleep.

10. Eucalyptus

Scientific Name: Calathea lutea

Having difficulty dealing with hateful people around and the negative vibes? We recommend you to add a eucalyptus plant to your surroundings. This plant aids in driving possible harm from your house and promoting economic welfare.

Along with this, it is a perfect plant for having positive energy in the workplace. Placing it in your cabin can actually increase your productivity and focus at work.

11. Basil

Scientific Name: Ipomoea

The great antioxidant properties of this spiritual plant welcome positive vibes in the house by clearing the negative energy. The heavenly properties of it can calm you down instantly.

Apart from this, it is considered to be a prosperity charm.

12. Aloe Vera

Scientific Name: Ocimum basilicum

The ayurvedic and healing properties of aloe-vera have helped this plant to gain a special place in people’s homes. However, the benefits of it can be seen in promoting mental health as well. It is believed that aloe-vera absorbs negative vibes which can be seen in the form of brown spots on it. This succulent plant species is also effective in regulating mood swings and promoting happiness.

13. Jasmine

Scientific Name: Jasminum

A plant that promotes and strengthens healthy relationships is surely a mental health booster. Well, jasmine plant can actually amp up your love life with its positive vibe. Many believe that this beautiful plant also holds the ability to mend broken hearts. Also, its lingering fragrance doubles the positive effect by soothing a stressed mind and stimulating energy.

14. Rosemary

Scientific Name: Salvia rosmarinus

The magic of rosemary plants is not just limited to elevate your dishes but also to improve your mental well-being. There is a long list of goods that this plant has to offer, such as, uplifting your sad mood, fighting anxiety, healing sleeping issues, improving memory, and bringing inner peace. Isn’t that impressive? Well, to make the most out of these benefits place this positivity-packed plant in cool temperature and with bright colors.

15. Lavender

Scientific Name: Lavandula

You might be gifting lavender flowers to your loved ones but, now it is time to gift them a plant of the same and get one for yourself. Thinking, why?

The answer is simple… to bring happiness and relaxation to your life and that of others. It is likely to promote better communication at home. Make sure you put it in a corner of your house or office from where you can smell it regularly to rejoice its effect.

Now if you ever feel confused while deciding what gift to give a friend, family member or a colleague then you know the answer- ‘A Plant Full of Good Vibes Only’

Also you can get different plants with positive energy and place them in various corners of your house. Do let us know in the comment section which positive energy plant is your favorite and which one are you planning to add in your indoors to welcome happiness and good mental health.


Alternative or Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-conventional sources of energy are considered cleaner sources as they do not produce undesirable waste in the form of smoke and toxic residues, which are detrimental to the environment. This Class 10 chapter also elaborates the alternative sources of energy that humanity has been seriously trying to harness to fulfil energy requirements in the present and near future. The major alternative or non-conventional sources of energy are:

Here are the study notes for these alternative or non-conventional sources of energy:

Solar Energy

The energy derived from the sun in the form of the heat radiated as well as light energy is referred to as solar energy. These radiations from the sun are converted into electricity with the help of solar cells or photovoltaic cells. These cells directly transmit the sun’s heat and light energy into electricity with the silicon solar cells which are arranged in the form of large flat sheets to create a mirror solar panel to trap sun’s heat and light. Solar cookers and solar heaters use the sun’s energy to either heat food or water respectively. The model of a solar cooker actually has black paint on the outside with an installed large glass plate that traps solar radiations thus creating a greenhouse effect. Solar cells are used across different industries such as:

  • Artificial satellites & space probes
  • Radio or wireless transmission
  • TV relay stations in remote areas
  • Traffic signals
  • Calculators
  • Cooking and electricity in rural areas

Energy from the Sea

As per our Class 10 Sources of Energy notes, here are the major sources of energy from the sea:

  • Tidal Energy : This source of energy is derived from the rise of ocean water which happens due to the gravitational pull of the moon. This rise is called high tide and when it goes back, it is called low tide. Tidal energy comes from this constant and enormous movement of water with every high and low tide and is mainly used to build dams or tidal barrages.
  • Wave Energy : The wave energy is produced by harnessing the kinetic energy of waves near the seashore which is then utilised to generate electricity. Turbines generally convert wave energy into electricity.
  • Ocean Thermal Energy : As the water found at the sea surface is warmed by the sun and the water in the depth of the sea is relatively cold, the contrast in temperature is potentially used to convert energy in ocean-thermal plants.

Geothermal Energy

In deeper hot regions on the earth, the molten rocks often get stuck in certain areas with geological changes and these regions are referred to as hot spots. So, at times when underground water comes in contact with these hot spots, the generated steam is extracted through a pipe and then routed to a turbine and this way electricity is produced. This is a cost-effective and alternative source of energy covered in Class 10 Science. Finding the right viable sites to produce such energy is quite a cumbersome task and the major geothermal plants are located in New Zealand and the USA.

Nuclear Energy

Another alternative source of energy you must study while going through our Class 10 science notes is Nuclear Energy. This type of energy is formed through a proicess known as nuclear fission in which the nucleus taken from a heavy atom like thorium or uranium is blasted with low-energy neutrons and thus divided into lighter nuclei. This leads into a massive amount of energy release which is then utilised for electricity generation.


What Are The Reactants In The Equation For Cellular Respiration? : What Are The Reactants In The Equation For Cellular . : What is the process of cellular respiration in plants & why do they need to perform it.

What Are The Reactants In The Equation For Cellular Respiration? : What Are The Reactants In The Equation For Cellular . : What is the process of cellular respiration in plants & why do they need to perform it.. Cells undergoing aerobic respiration produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, 6 molecules of water, and up to 30 molecules of atp (adenosine triphosphate), which is directly used to produce energy, from each molecule of what is the equation for cellular respiration and the reactants and products? Which molecules are the reactants or substrates for aerobic respiration? In the equation for cellular respiration the reactants, which go into the equation, are glucose and oxygen. Most organisms cannot respire without oxygen but some organisms and. The reactions in model 2 show these electron acceptors in the process of picking up an electron.

If you are searching for information on the formula of cellular respiration equation, the following biologywise article will prove to be useful. Cellular respiration involves all of the following except. During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule combines with six oxygen molecules to produce water, carbon dioxide and 38 units of atp. The equation of cellular respiration helps in calculating the release of energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen in a cell. Photosynthesis involves plants using the reactants carbon dioxide.

Cell Respiration | Wyzant Resources from dj1hlxw0wr920.cloudfront.net The products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide (co2), water (h2o) and energy, in the form of 36 atp molecules. 21 adding a summary table. Hence, glucose and oxygen are the reactants for this reaction whereas carbon dioxide and water are the products. The reactions described in the anaerobic respiration section are not respiratory at all, rather they are fermentation reactions. At the end of the cellular respiration, carbon dioxide and water are. How does cellular respiration happen inside of does this process need oxygen? Asked in plant respiration by lifeeasy biology. The overall (unbalanced) chemical equation for cellular respiration is:

Aerobic, or respiration in the presence of oxygen, and anaerobic, or aerobic respiration requires oxygen as a reactant, and creates energy more efficiently than anaerobic respiration.

However, in the case of woody plants, lenticels, a specialized group of loosely packed cells. Now that we know what the reactants of cellular respiration are, let's take a look at. 21 adding a summary table. Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. Cellular respiration is the process of extracting energy in the form of atp from the glucose in the food you eat. Cellular respiration involves all of the following except. The expressed chemical equation for this interaction can be defined as Cells undergoing aerobic respiration produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, 6 molecules of water, and up to 30 molecules of atp (adenosine triphosphate), which is directly used to produce energy, from each molecule of what is the equation for cellular respiration and the reactants and products? Cellular respiration works either in the presence or absence of oxygen. How is energy transferred and transformed in living systems? Perhaps the second most important molecule (dna is the first) is adenosine triphosphate (also. Following is the balanced cellular respiration equation. Cellular respiration is the process responsible for converting chemical energy, and the reactants/products involved in cellular respiration the balanced chemical equation for cellular respiration.

Cellular respiration and fermentation produce energy for cells to use. Theres a specific number of nad+ and fadh+ molecules used. Cellular respiration is the process of extracting energy in the form of atp from the glucose in the food you eat. Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function. However, in the case of woody plants, lenticels, a specialized group of loosely packed cells.

Diagram Cellular Respiration Reactants And Products . from o.quizlet.com The word equation for aerobic respiration is: Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function. So it's a fairly complicated answer but the equation at the top gives the gist lol. However, in the case of woody plants, lenticels, a specialized group of loosely packed cells. Water math(h_2o)/math and glucose math(c_6h_12o_6). To balance the oxygen atoms for the reactant side, you need to. Aerobic, or respiration in the presence of oxygen, and anaerobic, or aerobic respiration requires oxygen as a reactant, and creates energy more efficiently than anaerobic respiration. Theres a specific number of nad+ and fadh+ molecules used.

Asked in plant respiration by lifeeasy biology.

The overall (unbalanced) chemical equation for cellular respiration is: Add electrons to each reaction in model 2 on either the reactant or product side of the equation to complete the reactions. Theres a specific number of nad+ and fadh+ molecules used. Cellular respiration is the process through which cells convert fuel into energy and nutrients. The products, that come out of the equation, are the formula for cellular respiration is as follows: Hence, glucose and oxygen are the reactants for this reaction whereas carbon dioxide and water are the products. Cells undergoing aerobic respiration produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, 6 molecules of water, and up to 30 molecules of atp (adenosine triphosphate), which is directly used to produce energy, from each molecule of what is the equation for cellular respiration and the reactants and products? At the conclusion of cellular respiration, oxygen is the final electron acceptor. Aerobic, or respiration in the presence of oxygen, and anaerobic, or aerobic respiration requires oxygen as a reactant, and creates energy more efficiently than anaerobic respiration. 19 merge with plant respiration. Cellular respiration involves all of the following except. 21 adding a summary table. Small herbaceous plants have stomata in their soft stems, allowing the exchange of respiratory gases by diffusion.

To balance the oxygen atoms for the reactant side, you need to. What is necessary for the krebs. How is energy transferred and transformed in living systems? Cellular respiration can be described as a process in which cells convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water, along with the release of energy molecules i.e atp. In general, aerobic respiration is the breakdown of food in the presence of oxygen producing carbon.

CHAPTER 2 : CHEMICAL REACTIONS - 8sciencejmc.weebly.com from 8sciencejmc.weebly.com To balance the oxygen atoms for the reactant side, you need to. Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function. The products, that come out of the equation, are the formula for cellular respiration is as follows: Write the chemical reaction for the overall process of cellular respiration. 4.what is the correct equation for cellular respiration? What was the indicator that the switch was. Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are consumed as reactants, it is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the. The products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide (co2), water (h2o) and energy, in the form of 36 atp molecules.

The word equation for cellular respiration is glucose (sugar) + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy (as atp).

The expressed chemical equation for this interaction can be defined as Theres a specific number of nad+ and fadh+ molecules used. However, in the case of woody plants, lenticels, a specialized group of loosely packed cells. Add electrons to each reaction in model 2 on either the reactant or product side of the equation to complete the reactions. In the equation for cellular respiration the reactants, which go into the equation, are glucose and oxygen. During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule combines with six oxygen molecules to produce water, carbon dioxide and 38 units of atp. Two types of cellular respiration exist: Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. The reactions in model 2 show these electron acceptors in the process of picking up an electron. Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function. 21 adding a summary table. Now that we know what the reactants of cellular respiration are, let's take a look at. Slide 12 reviews cellular respiration reactants for aerobic and describe two times in the past week where your body switched from aerobic to anaerobic cellular respiration.

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If you are searching for information on the formula of cellular respiration equation, the following biologywise article will prove to be useful. In the equation for cellular respiration the reactants, which go into the equation, are glucose and oxygen. Cellular respiration works either in the presence or absence of oxygen. Powers life processes, in order to do any life processes you need atp what is the overall chemical equation for cellular respiration? Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ atp made).

The first stages of respiration occur in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells, but most of anaerobic respiration. Respiration proceeds in four discrete stages and releases about 39 percent of the energy stored in the what are the reactants in fermentation? Most organisms cannot respire without oxygen but some organisms and. Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ atp made). Cellular respiration and fermentation produce energy for cells to use.

C6h12o6 + 6o2 _ 38 atp + 6co2 + 6h2o represents which cellular process? The products of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide (co2), water (h2o) and energy, in the form of 36 atp molecules. Likewise, biological machines also require well engineered parts and good energy source in order to work. The products, that come out of the equation, are the formula for cellular respiration is as follows: C_6h_12o_6 + o_2 → co_2 + h_2o + energy > the balanced the 12 hydrogen atoms in the glucose make it possible for form 6 water molecules.

At the conclusion of cellular respiration, oxygen is the final electron acceptor. The equation of cellular respiration helps in calculating the release of energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen in a cell. Most organisms cannot respire without oxygen but some organisms and. Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function. Aerobic, or respiration in the presence of oxygen, and anaerobic, or aerobic respiration requires oxygen as a reactant, and creates energy more efficiently than anaerobic respiration.

To balance the oxygen atoms for the reactant side, you need to. Cellular respiration is the process responsible for converting chemical energy, and the reactants/products involved in cellular respiration the balanced chemical equation for cellular respiration. Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function. The products, that come out of the equation, are the formula for cellular respiration is as follows: Two types of cellular respiration exist:

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Any chemical process that yields energy is known as a catabolic pathway. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen (o2) in order to create atp. The word equation for cellular respiration is glucose (sugar) + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy (as atp). The reactants of aerobic respiration are oxygen (o2) and glucose. Photosynthesis involves plants using the reactants carbon dioxide.

Cellular respiration can be described as a process in which cells convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water, along with the release of energy molecules i.e atp. Slide 12 reviews cellular respiration reactants for aerobic and describe two times in the past week where your body switched from aerobic to anaerobic cellular respiration. The reactants of aerobic respiration are oxygen (o2) and glucose. If you are searching for information on the formula of cellular respiration equation, the following biologywise article will prove to be useful. In the equation for cellular respiration the reactants, which go into the equation, are glucose and oxygen.

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Now that we know what the reactants of cellular respiration are, let's take a look at. Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are consumed as reactants, it is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis and requires that pyruvate enter the. Following is the balanced cellular respiration equation. Perhaps the second most important molecule (dna is the first) is adenosine triphosphate (also. Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools.

Cellular respiration involves all of the following except. C_6h_12o_6 + o_2 → co_2 + h_2o + energy > the balanced the 12 hydrogen atoms in the glucose make it possible for form 6 water molecules. Two types of cellular respiration exist: The equation of cellular respiration helps in calculating the release of energy by breaking down glucose in the presence of oxygen in a cell. The overall (unbalanced) chemical equation for cellular respiration is:

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During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule combines with six oxygen molecules to produce water, carbon dioxide and 38 units of atp.

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What are the reactants of cellular respiration?

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The first stages of respiration occur in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells, but most of anaerobic respiration.

Cellular respiration involves all of the following except.

Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water (+ atp made).

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C6h12o6 + 6o2 _ 38 atp + 6co2 + 6h2o represents which cellular process?

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Cells undergoing aerobic respiration produce 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, 6 molecules of water, and up to 30 molecules of atp (adenosine triphosphate), which is directly used to produce energy, from each molecule of what is the equation for cellular respiration and the reactants and products?

What is necessary for the krebs.

Write the chemical reaction for the overall process of cellular respiration.

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If you are searching for information on the formula of cellular respiration equation, the following biologywise article will prove to be useful.

In general, aerobic respiration is the breakdown of food in the presence of oxygen producing carbon.

Cellular respiration is defined as the stepwise enzymatic breakdown of glucose to engender energy ,which in conjunction with atp synthase, forms atp.

What is necessary for the krebs.

Theres a specific number of nad+ and fadh+ molecules used.

The word equation for cellular respiration is glucose (sugar) + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy (as atp).

Cellular respiration and fermentation produce energy for cells to use.

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Write the chemical reaction for the overall process of cellular respiration.

During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule combines with six oxygen molecules to produce water, carbon dioxide and 38 units of atp.

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The expressed chemical equation for this interaction can be defined as

Every machine needs specific parts and fuel in order to function.

The reactions described in the anaerobic respiration section are not respiratory at all, rather they are fermentation reactions.

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In general, aerobic respiration is the breakdown of food in the presence of oxygen producing carbon.

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During cellular respiration, one glucose molecule combines with six oxygen molecules to produce water, carbon dioxide and 38 units of atp.

How is energy transferred and transformed in living systems?

Powers life processes, in order to do any life processes you need atp what is the overall chemical equation for cellular respiration?


Abstract:

In the search for sources of energy, discussions of nuclear fusion power as an option have often been seen as unrealistic, overshadowed by the viability of nuclear fission. Fusion power, however, would be an ideal answer to our current demand for economical and environmentally friendly energy production. This article discusses the mechanics of nuclear fusion and explains that, in terms of safety, resource availability, cost, and waste management, fusion power may be the best commercial option in the near future.

Article:

Civilization development constantly demands more efficient sources of energy, sources which would simultaneously pose minimal threat to the environment. Nuclear fusion power plants, also referred to as thermonuclear reactors, may be the best answer to the problem. Firstly, they are more efficient, and require only about one millionth of the mass of fuel needed to produce the same amount of energy as a coal operating power plant. Secondly, their fuel sources are virtually unlimited, since they are the most abundant elements in the universe. And, thirdly, they offer a much safer way of electric energy production. That is, the technologies implemented thus far are either not the safest for the environment, or not the most expedient. Thermonuclear reactors also present benefits on all three stages of processing: fuel, operation, and waste products. The quest for alternative sources of energy never stops. Even though progress in the area of fusion research has been more theoretical then practical, the field of study is constantly growing as new methods of solving problems are discovered. It is the kind of field, though, in which practice would not be possible without theory. What’s more, commercial implementation of fusion is already on the horizon. This paper will provide an overview of what particular advantages thermonuclear reactors possess, by explaining their basic principle of functioning, including fuel, operation, and waste products.

The theoretical idea behind the employment of nuclear fusion as an energy source is that light atomic nuclei combine to release energy. This energy comes from the difference in mass between the input material and the products of the reaction. The total mass of the reactants’ nuclei is slightly larger than the mass of produced nuclei. This excess mass is converted into energy, the amount of which can be described by Einstein’s famous rest energy equation E=mc2, which is a consequence of special relativity. In fact, this is the principal on which all currently operating nuclear power plants (using fission) are based, only in their case the mass difference arises when heavy nuclei split. As it turns out, the dividing line between the two energy releasing processes in Iron-56 (56Fe): lighter elements, which produce energy by merging and heavier ones which do so by splitting. Even though the processes are similar in nature, there is a great difference in the conditions required to facilitate both reactions.

As doctor of nuclear physics Kenneth Fowler discusses in his book, the physics of fusion is such that combination of the smallest nuclei releases the greatest amount of energy1. Thus, the most obvious fuel for a thermonuclear reaction is hydrogen and its isotopes1. Isotopes are elements which have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons in their nuclei. This property results in their identical chemical, but significantly different nuclear physical properties. There are three different isotopes of hydrogen: Hydrogen-1 (1H), common, and by far the most abundant one, Hydrogen-2 (2H), also called Deuterium (D), and Hydrogen-3 (3H), also known as Tritium (T). Out of all the combinations, the most efficient process is fusion of Deuterium (D) with Tritium (T). However, the reactions of Deuterium with itself as well as of Helium isotopes with those of Hydrogen also exhibit certain potential1. The most successful and promising design of a fusion reactor that has been developed so far is tokamak (which is a Russian acronym that stands for Toroidal Chamber with Magnetic Coils)1,2,3. It uses exactly fusion of Deuterium and Tritium and some other features because of which it is selected as an example for the following discussion. In fact, the theory behind nuclear fusion has been extensively studied and is very well developed, virtually, leaving open only the question of practical implementation.

Some of the greatest benefits that fusion reactors present are fuel abundance and accessibility. Deuterium is a stable isotope and naturally occurs in place of hydrogen. In fact, it constitutes a small fraction of hydrogen in water. Quantitatively, it exists in great amounts and is virtually unlimited, taking into account how much water there is on planet Earth. According to the paper, “International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor,” “Deuterium is really quite abundant naturally. About one part in 5000 of the hydrogen in the sea water is Deuterium. This amounts to over 1015 tons of deuterium available naturally. A single gallon of seawater would produce as much energy as 300 gallons of gasoline”4. Tritium – the second constituent of the reaction, is an unstable isotope and, for that reason, is much less abundant then Deuterium and quite rarely occurs naturally. However, this problem can be solved by a reactor design that produces Tritium during the reaction, and such design does exist. The nuclear reaction of Deuterium with Tritium produces a neutron. If the reaction space is confined inside a lithium blanket, the neutrons produced in the primary reaction will engage a secondary reaction with lithium, producing Tritium1,2,4,5. The lithium supply is also virtually unlimited, since lithium is the third most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen and helium1.

As reported by The Institute of Physics, “The long-term fuel security of fusion would appear to exceed that of fission power and hence far exceed that of fossil-fuel energy. A fusion station would use about 100 kg of deuterium and 3 tons of lithium to produce the same amount of energy as a coal-fuelled power using 3 million tons of fuel2.” Another benefit of fusion fuel is that it is quite easy to extract from raw materials. Deuterium can be separated from oxygen in water by electrolysis1,2. As a matter of fact, as a water constituent, Deuterium has a much higher density than in the separated from water gaseous state, which creates an efficient way to store it. Most of the Tritium supply is going to be produced during the reaction, and therefore no advanced storage techniques should be required. The cost price of the reactants is quite low too, and most of the expenses should be associated with building fusion power plants rather than operating them, which is the other way around for any of the current energy providing facilities2. Taking all the listed facts into account, fusion power plants have quite an advantage over any currently operating power plant type.

Another positive aspect of the fusion reactor’s fuel is that it is not harmful for the environment and safety risks associated with its storage and handling are minimal. The most important component of the reaction, Deuterium, is a stable isotope and thus produces no radioactivity. The only threat it could pose is flammability, because chemically, Deuterium reacts like hydrogen. But this property is not a big problem, since reasonable techniques for storing hydrogen have already been developed. Another option, as has already been mentioned, would be to store Deuterium as water and separate it from oxygen at the reaction cite1,2. This option would require very simple means of containment to eliminate the flammability risk. During the course of reaction, Deuterium would only be used in small amounts, in a vacuum chamber devoid of oxygen, which makes explosion impossible. However, because of the small atomic sizes of Deuterium and Tritium, some minimal leakage is inevitable. While in case of Deuterium it is not a problem, there is some concern for Tritium. Tritium is a radioactive isotope and may increase radioactivity background in the area of leakage. But, if proper storage techniques are used, Tritium would only be able to escape at unnoticeable rates, without increasing radioactivity background above the norm, imposing no threat to the power plant workers. Also, Tritium would only need to be stored in minimum amounts in order to get the reaction started again in case of operation interruption. Most of the Tritium is going to be produced during the reaction inside the reactor from lithium5. In an extreme case, even if all the contained Tritium is let out of its storage as a result of a failure, its concentration in the atmosphere should contribute less radiation than the permissible level by the time it spreads to the plant’s fence3. Moreover, Tritium has a very short half-life of only 12 years, as compared to the materials used in fission reactors, for which the half-life approaches thousands of years2. This makes fusion fuel much safer than that of fission or even fossil fuel power plants.

There are a number of conditions that need to be satisfied in order to facilitate a fusion reaction. The reactants’ nuclei need to have enough kinetic energy (or, roughly speaking, speed) to overcome the electrostatic force, which causes the positively charged nuclei to repel. The combining nuclei need to get in the vicinity of each other where the strong nuclear force will overcome the electromagnetic force. In macroscopic terms, this means that the gas of the reacting material has to be heated to a certain temperature before fusion can occur. That temperature is on the order of 100 million degrees Kelvin2,6. At such conditions, the helium isotopes’ atoms become completely ionized and the state of mater (like solid, liquid, or gas), composed of separate ionized nuclei and electrons, is called plasma. As the plasma is capable of conducting electricity, it can be heated by inducing electric current in it and then confined in a magnetic field. This is the principle of operation of a tokamak. On a large scale, plasma confinement and heat isolation (to keep the temperature high enough for a long time) are the issues with which scientists and engineers are currently struggling. The number of conditions that have to be precisely met for reaction to occur—such as plasma temperature and pressure, fuel supply, reactants and plasma purity—is in fact what makes fusion reactors much safer than any other source of power.

In case of a reactor failure during operation, there should be little threat to either the environment, or, in most cases, the power plant itself. An operating fusion reactor is much safer than a fission one, because a critical amount of fuel is not required. There is only a small amount of fuel present in the reaction zone at any time, which makes a meltdown impossible3. Even though the plasma in an operating reactor is heated to a tremendous temperature, it is not very dense, and can easily cool to harmless temperatures. So, if a magnetic confinement mechanism fails, the plasma will come in contact with the walls of the reactor and cool, after which, the reaction will stop. Even if plasma harms the reactor, damage should only be caused to the inner surface of the toroidal chamber. The plasma, in any case, should not be able to melt through the reactor walls. Some replacement of the inner parts might be necessary, but an explosion is practically impossible. Firstly, since the reaction is conducted in vacuum, there is nothing for hydrogen to react with chemically after the plasma has cooled. Secondly, even if in some extreme case leakage of air into the reaction chamber occurs, the hydrogen isotope concentration there will be too small for an explosion. Also, once the plasma is colder than the required temperature, the reaction simply ceases and, therefore, no runaway nuclear reaction is possible, as opposed to the case of a fission power plant failure.

If the fuel supply mechanism fails, the reaction simply comes to an end as well. There is no danger if the magnetic field continues to operate in the absence of fuel. Fuel shut down can also be used as means of accident prevention if a failure is suspected. The case of fuel leakage has already been discussed and does not present a great threat. If the gas constituting plasma leaks out, concentration of Tritium in it should be minimal and essentially safe. As explained by the Institute of Physics Report, “Fusion power stations would present no opportunity for terrorists to cause widespread harm (no greater than a typical fossil-fuelled station) owing to the intrinsic safety of the technology”2. Thus, the risk of a fusion power plant failure is less than that for the majority of current sources of energy (i.e., plants operating on coal, natural gas, nuclear fission, etc.).

Finally, the waste products of fusion reaction are either much safer than those of other kinds of power plants, or are absolutely harmless. The discussed reaction of Deuterium with Tritium, as can be seen in Fig. 2, produces the regular isotope of helium and a neutron. It is the same isotope of helium that is used to fill air balloons which is not radioactive and cannot activate the equipment. However, the neutrons, although not radioactive themselves, are capable of activating the reactor’s structure, especially the metallic parts, when they hit them at high speed. This effect can be mitigated by using less reactive materials (carbon fiber has been proposed), which will produce short half-life waste. In contrast, even regular materials activated by high energy neutrons have a half-life of only about 30 years or less which is much less than the half-life of nuclear waste produced by fission. So, no complex storage would be required. Eventually, activated parts of the reactor will have to be replaced. This procedure will not have to be conducted frequently, as the parts should hold for approximately 40 to 50 years (the lifetime of a regular power plant of any kind)1,3. By the time replacement parts are needed, waste in the old activated parts should already degrade, and they should be safe to dispose of or recycle as metal3. Hence, fusion technology has a direct advantage over other sources of energy.

In the current state of rapid use of natural resources and depletion of easily available ones, there is a high demand for alternative sources of energy. Importance of this is also increasing in the light of need for ecology protection. Fusion power would be the best answer to the problem, as the fuel it requires is virtually unlimited and the waste it produces will not impose a negative impact on the environment. There are multiple other advantages in developing and transitioning to fusion as a source of energy, among which are intrinsic safety of stations’ operation, relative ease of resources acquisition and waste handling, and minimal costs associated with operation. The research in the field is rapidly growing and commercial use of fusion energy is not too far off.