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Cancer cure statistics questions

Cancer cure statistics questions


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I have a question about cancer cure statistics. Many of the cancer literature or databases I have come across speak about 5 year or 10 year survival rates. In this case survival means that the patient with cancer is still alive 5 or 10 years after diagnosis. I am in need of references about the statistics which explain what is the percentage of people in these groups who are in progression-free survival group and disease-free survival group. That is for instance among the cancer patients which survive for some X years, who are completely cured of cancer (which means that the cancer is completely cured and has not reoccured with in this X years).

Update: USA data is preferred

Thanks


I would caution you against using phrases such as "completely cured" or even "cured". This goes beyond our technical ability to detect the presence of tumor cells within someone's body. All we can conclude is progression-free survival (i.e. living with cancer that does not get worse) or disease-free survival (i.e. or no signs or symptoms of the tumor). Many of these data are included in cancer trials along with overall survival rates. Some general statistics for many groups of cancers can be found here: http://www.cancer.gov/statistics/find

And a glossary of terms used in reporting cancer statistics here: http://www.cancer.gov/statistics/glossary


In cancer research, we never talk about "curing" cancer because, as others have pointed out, there is no way of being sure that all of the cancer has been eradicated. You may be interested to consider "Recurrence" statistics which describe the amount of time from when a cancer was treated to when it was detected to have returned.

If you are willing to do some statistics computations of your own, The Cancer Genome Atlas (http://cancergenome.nih.gov/) will let you download clinical datasets that include datasets like recurrence, "Overall Survival" (how long did the person live after being diagnosed with cancer), and others. You can plug in either recurrence values or overall survival values and perform a Survival Analysis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survival_analysis, http://lifelines.readthedocs.org/en/latest/Survival%20Analysis%20intro.html) to see how long people tend to live cancer-free or live in general after their diagnosis depending on their cancer type (or other variable you feel like comparing).


Cancer Facts & Figures 2020


Cancer Facts & Figures 2020 is an educational companion for Cancer Statistics 2020, a scientific paper published in the American Cancer Society journal, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. The Facts & Figures annual report provides:

  • Estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in 2020 (In 2020, there will be an estimated 1.8 million new cancer cases diagnosed and 606,520 cancer deaths in the United States.)
  • Current cancer incidence, mortality, and survival statistics
  • Information on cancer symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and treatment

(Please note: The projected numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in 2020 should not be compared with previous years to track cancer trends because they are model-based and vary from year to year for reasons other than changes in cancer occurrence. Age-standardized incidence and death rates should be used to measure cancer trends.)


Cancer cure statistics questions - Biology

ON THIS PAGE: You will find information about the number of people who are diagnosed with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer each year. You will also read general information on surviving these diseases. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors. Use the menu to see other pages.

Laryngeal cancer

Laryngeal cancer is a common type of head and neck cancer. This year, an estimated 12,620 adults (9,940 men and 2,680 women) in the United States will be diagnosed with laryngeal cancer. The incidence rates of this disease are dropping by 2% to 3% annually. This is thought to be the result of fewer people smoking.

It is estimated that 3,770 deaths (3,020 men and 750 women) from this disease will occur this year.

The 5-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The 5-year survival rate for laryngeal cancer is 61%.

More than half of patients (53%) are diagnosed and treated before the cancer has spread outside the larynx. In those cases, the 5-year survival rate is 78%. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 45%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 34%.

However, the 5-year survival rate also depends on the location of the cancer (glottis, supraglottis, or subglottis, as explained in the Introduction) and the stage.

  • Glottis. Approximately 60% of laryngeal cancer is found in the glottis. The 5-year survival rate for this cancer is 76%. If the cancer is only located in the larynx (localized cancer), the 5-year survival rate is 83%. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes (regional cancer), the 5-year survival rate is 48%. When the cancer is in the most advanced stage and has spread to a distant part of the body (distant cancer), the survival rate is 42%.
  • Supraglottis. Approximately 35% of laryngeal cancer is found in the supraglottis. The 5-year survival rate for this cancer is 46%. If the cancer is localized in the larynx, the 5-year survival rate is 61%. If the cancer is regional, the 5-year survival rate is 47%. The 5-year survival rate for distant cancer of the supraglottis is 30%.
  • Subglottis. Rarely, cancer will start in the subglottis. The 5-year survival rate for this cancer is 52%. If the cancer is localized in the larynx, the 5-year survival rate is 60%. If the cancer is regional, the 5-year survival rate is 33%. At its distant stage, the 5-year survival rate is 45%.

Hypopharyngeal cancer

Each year, an estimated 3,000 people in the United States will be diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer.

Survival rates for hypopharyngeal cancer vary based on a variety of factors, particularly the stage. The 5-year survival rate for hypopharyngeal cancer is 32%. If the cancer is found at an early, localized stage, the 5-year survival rate of people with hypopharyngeal cancer is 59%.

If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and/or the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 33%. If the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 21%. Hypopharyngeal cancer is often found at a more advanced stage because of its location. Laryngeal cancer often will cause hoarseness or coughing up blood, which can lead to an earlier diagnosis. Hypopharyngeal cancers can go longer without causing symptoms.

It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer are an estimate. The estimate comes from annual data based on the number of people with these types of cancer in the United States. Also, experts measure the survival statistics every 5 years. So the estimate may not show the results of better diagnosis or treatment available for less than 5 years. Talk with your doctor if you have any questions about this information. Learn more about understanding statistics.

Statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society's (ACS) publication, Cancer Facts & Figures 2021, the ACS website, the National Cancer Institute website, and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (sources accessed January 2021.)

The next section in this guide is Medical Illustrations. It offers drawings of body parts often affected by laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.


Key Statistics for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

The American Cancer Society’s estimates for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) in the United States for 2021 (including both children and adults) are:

  • About 5,690 new cases of ALL (3,000 in males and 2,690 in females)
  • About 1,580 deaths from ALL (900 in males and 680 in females)

The risk for developing ALL is highest in children younger than 5 years of age. The risk then declines slowly until the mid-20s, and begins to rise again slowly after age 50. Overall, about 4 of every 10 cases of ALL are in adults.

ALL is not a common cancer, accounting for less than half of 1% of all cancers in the United States. The average person’s lifetime risk of getting ALL is about 1 in 1,000. The risk is slightly higher in males than in females, and higher in whites than in African Americans.

Most cases of ALL occur in children, but most deaths from ALL (about 4 out of 5) occur in adults. Children may do better than adults because of differences in the nature of childhood and adult ALL, differences in treatment (children’s bodies can often handle aggressive treatment better than adult’s), or some combination of these.

Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics.


COVID-19 and cancer research

To limit the opportunities for viral transmission, many research centers enacted policies limiting the number of lab workers allowed on-site, putting many studies on hold. For the most part, research projects funded by government appropriations have not been hobbled by the pandemic, but some projects supported by private philanthropy face a funding gap. COVID-19 has drastically decreased donations to cancer-focused philanthropic organizations. The American Cancer Society, for example, expects a $200 million decrease in donations this year and has not been able to accept applications for research grants for the Fall grant cycle.

Clinical cancer research, in which potential new therapies are tested in patients, has also experienced difficulties as a result of COVID-19. Some cancer centers halted enrollment on clinical trials entirely during the height of the pandemic. A survey of dozens of clinical investigators in March found that nearly 60 percent of respondents had halted screening and/or enrollment in certain trials, and that half of their institutions had ceased collection of blood and other tissue for research purposes.

Despite these challenges, investigators found a variety of ways to adapt to straitened circumstances so trials could continue. These included leveraging telehealth to limit in-person visits, use of e-signatures for trial documentation, shipping oral medications to trial participants rather than requiring them to be picked up at the clinic, and allowing laboratory tests to be done at outside labs.

“The relaxation of some of the regulatory requirements associated with clinical research has been accomplished without compromising patient safety,” Bakouny said. “Many investigators see this as a plus — something that could be part of clinical research going forward, to reduce the cost of trials and facilitate the arrival of new therapies for patients.”


Looking into the Future

Cancer is primarily a disease of old age. If all other factors remain the same, the demographic change (population growth and an increasingly higher percentage of older individuals in the world population) will lead to a global increase of cancer incidence. The GLOBOCAN 2002 database provides a means to project cancer incidence in the future. In 2002, there were an estimated total of 5,801,839 male individuals diagnosed with cancer (all sites except skin). If the age-specific incidence rates remain the same, population growth and aging of the world population would result in a projected total of 6,993,778 in 2010, a 20.5 percent increase within eight years (Table 4). The picture is similar for females. The total number of females diagnosed with cancer (all sites except skin) is projected to change from 5,060,657 in 2002 to 6,037,753 in 2010, which represents a 19.3 percent increase (detailed data not shown). This underscores the importance to improve our understanding of the risk factors of cancer, design and implement practical prevention strategies, and develop better and more effective treatment options.

The population compositions are dramatically different between more and less developed countries. Less developed countries have a smaller percentage of older individuals [ Figure 5 ]. As cancer incidence increases with age, less developed countries have a larger population base and potentially more room for population aging. The foreseeable increase in the global burden of cancer likely will be more profound in less developed countries. In a recently published report, Cancer Control Opportunities in the Developing World [22], by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, it is recognized that cancer is a significant disease burden in low- and middle-income countries, and the burden will become increasingly heavy for these countries not only because these nations are more populous, which give rise to more cases, but there are also more aggressive cancers and lower cure rates. The report also indicates that cancer causes and outcomes are very different between more and less developed countries. For example, one in four cancer cases in developing countries are related to infectious agents compared to less than one in 10 cases in the developed nations. These disparities suggest different cancer prevention and control strategies for more and less developed countries in directing resources into the field of cancer research with regard to etiology, prevention, treatment, and health policy to reduce the burden of cancer globally.

Population Pyramid for More (top) and Less (bottom) Developed Countries, 2002.


Cancer cure statistics questions - Biology

Learning more about your diagnosis and treatment plan helps you take an active role in planning your cancer care. Studies show that people with cancer who are well informed about their disease and treatment options usually have better outcomes and fewer side effects than those who simply follow doctors' orders. However, some people feel overwhelmed by too much information and do not want to know too many details. Decide how much information you want, and share your preferences with your health care team and caregivers.

Tips to help you get your questions answered

Your health care team should make time to explain the treatment options and answer your questions. Here are some tips to help you communicate better with the members of that team:

Consider writing your questions down before your appointment. This can lower your stress level and help you make the most of your visit. You may want to print the list of questions below to bring to your next appointment. Or you can download Cancer.Net’s free mobile app for a list of questions and other interactive tools to manage your care.

Bring a notebook or a tape recorder to the appointment. During the appointment, write down the answers or make an audio recording. You can also ask a family member or friend to record them for you. This will allow you to read or listen to the information later and take the time you need to process it.

Tell your health care team if you are having trouble understanding an explanation or certain medical words. Sometimes they may be able to draw a picture or give an example that would help you understand.

Let your doctor know if you are interested in seeking a second opinion. Most doctors understand the value of a second opinion. And your current doctor may even be able to recommend another doctor.

Ask your health care team where you can find additional information or printed materials about your condition. Many offices have this information readily available.

Talk with your health care team about information you have found on the Internet or in books or magazines. Not all information is accurate and reliable. Learn more about evaluating cancer information on the Internet.

Potential questions to ask your health care team

Asking questions is an important part of managing your care. The questions you choose should be based on your unique needs and interests, and those questions may change over time.

Consider the following questions as you decide what you want to ask your health care team:

General information

What are the risk factors for this disease?

Is this type of cancer caused by genetic factors? Are other members of my family at risk?

What lifestyle changes—such as diet, exercise, and rest—should I make to be healthy before, during, and after treatment?

Where can I find more information about this type of cancer?

Symptoms

What are some common symptoms of this type of cancer?

How can I prevent or manage them?

What are the treatment options for my symptoms?

Will certain activities make my symptoms worse?

What should I do if I notice new symptoms or if existing symptoms worsen?

Diagnosis

Where will I go to have the tests or procedures?

How can I prepare for them?

What will we learn from the tests or procedures?

When will I get the results, and how will I receive them?

What does my pathology report tell us about the cancer?

Will I need to repeat any tests or procedures if I seek a second opinion?

How and when should I communicate with loved ones about my diagnosis?

Staging

What is the stage of the cancer? What does this mean?

Has cancer spread to my lymph nodes or any other parts of my body?

How is staging used to help decide the best type of cancer treatment?

What is my chance of recovery?

Treatment

Which treatments, or combination of treatments, do you recommend? Why?

What is the goal of the treatment? Is it to eliminate the cancer, help me feel better, or both?

What clinical trials are available for me? Where are they located? How do I find out more about them?

Who will be part of my cancer care team? What does each person do?

How much experience do you or other members of the cancer care team have treating this type of cancer?

Will I need to stay in the hospital for treatment? Or will this treatment happen in an outpatient clinic?

What is the expected timeline for my treatment? Do I need it immediately?

How will this treatment affect my daily life? Will I be able to work, exercise, and perform my usual activities?

What are the short- and long-term side effects of this treatment?

Could this treatment affect my ability to become pregnant or have children? If so, should I talk with a fertility specialist before cancer treatment begins?

How will you treat side effects that I experience during treatment?

How can I keep myself as healthy as possible during treatment?

Clinical trials

How do clinical trials help people with cancer?

What happens during a clinical trial?

What are the benefits and risks of participating in a clinical trial?

How will I be cared for during the clinical trial?

What are my responsibilities during the clinical trial?

Are there any costs associated with my participation in a clinical trial?

Where can I learn more about clinical trials?

Find more questions to ask the research team when considering a clinical trial.

Support

What support services are available to me? To my family?

May I contact you or the nurse if I have other questions?

Whom should I call with questions or concerns during non-business hours?

Can you recommend a social worker to help locate support services?

Where can I find resources for children? For teenagers? For young adults? For older adults?

If I'm worried about managing the costs of cancer care, who can help me?

Who handles health insurance concerns in your office?

Follow-up care

What is the chance that the cancer will come back? Should I watch for specific signs or symptoms?

What long-term side effects or late effects are possible based on the cancer treatment I received?

What follow-up tests will I need? How often will I need them?

How do I get a treatment summary and survivorship care plan to keep in my personal records?

Who will be leading my follow-up care?

What survivorship support services are available to me? To my family?

For more questions, see the "Questions to Ask the Doctor" section of each cancer type.


Cancer cure statistics questions - Biology

Have questions about breast cancer? Ask here.

Cancer.Net Assist is a digital assistant that can help you find the information you're looking for.

ON THIS PAGE: You will find information about the number of people who are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. You will also read general information on surviving the disease. Remember, survival rates depend on several factors. Use the menu to see other pages.

More women are diagnosed with breast cancer than any other type of cancer, besides skin cancer. This year, an estimated 281,550 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and 49,290 women will be diagnosed with non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer. From 2008 to 2017, invasive breast cancer in women increased by half a percent each year. An estimated 2,650 men in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer this year.

It is estimated that 44,130 deaths (43,600 women and 530 men) from breast cancer will occur this year.

The 5-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least 5 years after the cancer is found. Percent means how many out of 100. The average 5-year survival rate for women with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer is 90%. The average 10-year survival rate for women with non-metastatic invasive breast cancer is 84%.

If the invasive breast cancer is located only in the breast, the 5-year survival rate of women with this disease is 99%. Sixty-three percent (63%) of women with breast cancer are diagnosed with this stage. Adolescent and young adult females ages 15 to 39 in the United States are less likely to be diagnosed at an early stage of breast cancer (47%) compared to women older than 65 (68%). This may be because most breast cancer screening does not begin until age 40 unless someone is at a higher risk.

If the cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 86%. If the cancer has spread to a distant part of the body, the 5-year survival rate is 28%. Survival rates are about 9% to 10% lower in Black women compared to white women.

Six percent (6%) of women have cancer that has spread outside of the breast and regional lymph nodes at the time they are first diagnosed with breast cancer. This is called "de novo" metastatic breast cancer. Even if the cancer is found at a more advanced stage, new treatments help many people with breast cancer maintain a good quality of life for some time. Learn more about metastatic breast cancer in a separate guide on this website.

It is important to note that these statistics are averages, and each person’s chance of recovery depends on many factors, including the size of the tumor, the number of lymph nodes that contain cancer, and other features of the tumor that affect how quickly a tumor will grow and how well treatment works. This means that it can be difficult to estimate each individual's chance of survival.

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women in the United States after lung cancer. However, the number of women who have died of breast cancer has decreased by 41% from 1989 to 2018 thanks to early detection and treatment improvements. As a result, more than 403,000 breast cancer deaths were prevented during that period.

Since 2007, the number of women age 50 and over who have died of breast cancer has continued to decrease. The number of women under age 50 who have died of breast cancer has stayed steady. From 2013 to 2018, the death rate for women with cancer dropped by 1% each year.

Currently, there are more than 3.8 million women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States.

It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with breast cancer are an estimate. The estimate comes from annual data based on the number of people with this cancer in the United States. Also, experts measure the survival statistics every 5 years. So the estimate may not show the results of better diagnosis or treatment available for less than 5 years. Talk with your doctor if you have any questions about this information. Learn more about understanding statistics.

Statistics adapted from the American Cancer Society's publications, Cancer Facts & Figures 2021 and Cancer Facts & Figures 2020 the ACS website and the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program (sources accessed January 2021).

The next section in this guide is Medical Illustrations. It offers drawings of body parts often affected by breast cancer. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.


Lung Cancer Statistics

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women in the United States. It is also the leading cause of cancer death among men and the second leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Lung cancer rates and trends vary substantially by sex, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography because of differences in historical smoking patterns. Lung cancer mortality rates in the United States are highest among males, blacks, people of lower socioeconomic status, and in the mid-South (e.g., Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee). Globally, rates are highest in countries where smoking uptake began earliest, such as those in North America and Europe. Although rates are now decreasing in most of these countries (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Australia), especially in men, they are increasing in countries where smoking uptake occurred later. Low- and middle-income countries now account for more than 50% of lung cancer deaths each year. This chapter reviews lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the United States and globally.

Keywords: Age Age-standardized rate (ASR) Cancer burden Cancer incidence Cancer mortality Cancer statistics Five-year relative survival Global Global patterns International Lung cancer Race/ethnicity Socioeconomic status (SES) geographic variation Trends United States.


Cancer cure statistics questions - Biology

Cancer is any disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth. Abnormal cells begin to divide and make tumors. They can spread throughout the body and slowly destroy good cells and tissues making the person sick.

There are many different diseases that are called cancers. Some of these diseases are very treatable while others are more dangerous and can be fatal. Around 40% of all people will be diagnosed with cancer some time during their lives.

Cancer Starts in the Cell

Cancer starts when the genes in a cell that regulate cell growth are somehow altered or mutated. It actually takes a number of mutations before a cell becomes cancerous. Typically, the cells are smart enough to get rid of mutations. They have complex ways of safeguarding against mutations and will kill off bad cells. However, if the right series of mutations occur, the cells will begin to grow uncontrollably.

Cancer is really a term used to describe a number of different diseases. There are more than 200 different types of cancer. Typically, cancers are named after the place in the body where the cancer first began. For example, lung cancer is cancer that started in the lungs. There are then different types of lung cancers with long scientific names such as "well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung" and "small cell carcinoma of the lung."

  • Breast cancer - Cancer of the breast that usually forms in the tubes and glands that carry and make milk. It is much more common in women than in men.
  • Colon cancer - Cancer of the colon, which is part of the large intestine.
  • Leukemia - Cancer of the blood that often starts in the bone marrow.
  • Lymphoma - Cancer of the white blood cells that help to form the immune system. It is often found in the lymph nodes, the spleen, or the blood marrow.
  • Lung cancer - Cancer of the lungs. It is most commonly, but not always, caused by smoking.
  • Melanoma - Cancer of the skin or other pigmented areas (like the eye). It is often caused by too much exposure to the Sun's harmful rays.
  • Pancreatic cancer - Cancer that forms in the pancreas organ.
  • Prostate cancer - Cancer that forms in the prostate. Only men have prostates and typically get this cancer when they are older.
  • A sore that doesn't heal or get better like normal.
  • A change in the size, shape, color, or thickness of a mole or other sore.
  • Difficulty in swallowing or a constant upset stomach.
  • Change in bladder or bowel habits.
  • Any type of constant or unusual bleeding.
  • Any thick lump or growth.
  • A constant cough or scratchy throat.
  • Surgery - Surgery is used to physically remove the cancer. In some cases the area or tumor where the cancer is located can be safely removed.
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancerous cells. These chemicals target cells that divide rapidly, which is common to most cancer cells. Unfortunately, chemotherapy kills some good cells as well and can have harsh side effects.
  • Radiation - Radiation uses high-energy waves to destroy cancer cells.

Can you help prevent cancer?

  • Don't use tobacco - This includes both smoking and chewing tobacco.
  • Eat healthy - This means eating lots of fruits and vegetables as well as eating low fat foods.
  • Exercise and have a healthy weight - Being overweight can increase the risk of getting various forms of cancer.
  • Don't get sunburned - Protecting your skin from the Sun by using sunscreen and staying out of the Sun's rays during the middle of the day can lower the risk of skin cancer.
  • Get immunized - Certain immunizations can help to prevent cancer.
  • Avoid risky behaviors - Some actions such as sharing needles can pass diseases that can lead to cancer.
  • See your doctor - Getting a regular checkup at the doctor can help to detect cancer early, which can be very important in having successful treatment.

Take a ten question quiz about this page.

*** This page is not to be used as medical advice in any way. Please immediately consult your doctor if you have medical concerns.



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