Information

10: Invertebrate II - Biology


10: Invertebrate II

10: Invertebrate II - Biology

Course Coordinator: Dr Josephine Peter

Course Timetable

The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

Course Learning Outcomes

1 describe the nature and activities of microorganisms and invertebrates in agriculture, food and wine
2 demonstrate an understanding of the growth, handling and identification of microorganisms
3 describe the structure, function and evolution of the main invertebrate taxa relevant to agriculture, food and wine
4 apply an understanding of the processes involved in the recognition of key groups of invertebrates
5 demonstrate effective information handling and communication skills through individual and group work
6
7
8
9
10

University Graduate Attributes

This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

  • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
  • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
  • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
  • steeped in research methods and rigor
  • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
  • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
  • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
  • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
  • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
  • technology savvy
  • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
  • forward thinking and well informed
  • tested and validated by work based experiences
  • adept at operating in other cultures
  • comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
  • able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
  • demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
  • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
  • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
  • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
Required Resources
Recommended Resources

Cargill M and Bellotti M (2004) Written Communication in the Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, The University of Adelaide. http://www.agwine.adelaide.edu.au/students/external/carwripg1.pdf

General microbiology and bacteria

Madigan MT, Martinko JM et al. (2012) Brock Biology of Microorganisms (13th edition). Pearson. (earlier editions, 2000 onwards, are also suitable).

Willey JM, Sherwood LM and Woolverton CJ (2017) Prescott&rsquos Microbiology (10th edition). McGraw-Hill. (earlier editions, 2005 onwards, are also suitable).

Deacon JW (2006) Fungal Biology (4th edition). Blackwell Publishing.

Ingold CT and Hudson HJ (1993) The Biology of Fungi (6th edition). Chapman & Hall.

Hull R (2009 or electronic resource) Comparative Plant Virology (2nd edition). Academic Press.

Wagner EK and Hewlett MJ (2004) Basic Virology (2nd edition). Blackwell Publishing.

Agrios GN (1997, 2005 or electronic resource) Plant Pathology (4th, 5th edition). Academic Press.

Pitt J and Hocking AD (1997) Fungi and Food Spoilage (2nd edition). Blackie Academic Publishers.

or Pitt J and Hocking AD (electronic resource) Fungi and Food Spoilage (3rd edition). Springer.

Barker, GM (ed.) (2001 or electronic resource) The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 558 p.

Barnes RSK, Calow PP, Olive PJW, Golding DW and Spicer JI (2001) The invertebrates: a synthesis (3rd edition). Wiley-Blackwell.

Edwards, CA, Hendrix P and Arancon N (2008) Biology and ecology of earthworms (4th edition). Springer, New York.

Harvey, MS and Yen AL (1989) Worms to wasps: an illustrated guide to Australia's terrestrial invertebrates. Oxford University Press.

Moore J (2006 or electronic resource) An introduction to the invertebrates (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press.

Naumann ID (ed.) (1994) Systematic and applied entomology: an introduction. Melbourne University Press.

Ruppert EE, Fox RS and Barnes RD (2004) Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach, 7th ed. Thomson-Brooks/Cole.

Triplehorn CA and Johnson NF (2005) Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects (pp. 401-402). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Online Learning

Teaching and course materials will be posted on MyUni (http://myuni.adelaide.edu.au/). Lectures will be recorded and posted on MyUni. Tutorial topics will be posted for discussion. A series of videos demonstrating common microbiological techniques will be available on MyUni (Practicals pages). Interactive pre-laboratory activities using the software Articulate will be used in formative and summative assessment. Online quizzes will be available to help with review and revision (formative assessment).

Learning & Teaching Modes
Workload

The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

Learning Activities Summary

Week 1 of 13
Topic: Introduction and overview of microorganisms
Lecture: Role and importance of microbiology in agriculture and related areas
Lecture: Microbial growth and its control
Tutorial: Overview of course and assessment
Practical: Microbial culture techniques, use of dissecting and compound microscopes

Week 2 of 13
Topic: Bacteria and fungi
Lecture: Bacteria - form and function
Lecture: Fungi - form and function
Practical: Single-celled microorganisms: form and function

Week 3 of 13
Topic: Viruses, Identification and classification
Lecture: Viruses - form and function
Lecture: Identification and classification of microorganisms
Tutorial (small groups): Bacteria and fungi &ndash structure and function
Practical: Complete work on single-celled microorganisms Multi-celled microorganisms - form and function

Week 4 of 13
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Microbial ecosystems - introduction
Lecture: Food fermentaion and spoilage
Tutorial: Introduction to project
Practical: Project work on activities of microorganisms
Tutorial: Optional tutorial (begins 4.10 pm): Revision of weeks 1-4

Week 5 of 13
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Plant-microbe interactions &ndash disease
Lecture: Plant disease and control
Practical: Project work (continued, 1 hour) Microbes as pathogens: bacteria, fungi and virus diseases

Week 6 of 13
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Plant-microbe interactions &ndash rhizobium
Lecture: Bioremediation, compost, silage
Tutorial: Optional tutorial (over lunch): Preparation for mid-semester written exam
Tutorial (small groups): Review progress in project and discuss assessment
Practical: Project work (continued)

Week 7 of 13
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lectorial: Introduction to rumen microbiology and invertebrate collection, and opportunity to ask questions about course content so far
Lecture: Industrial microbiology
Non-compulsory, redeemable mid-semester exam (afternoon)
Optional "clinic" on finalising the project poster (after exam)

Week 8 of 13
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lectures: Rumen microbiology
Practical: Rumen microbiology

Week 9 of 13
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lecture: Overview of invertebrates of importance in agriculture, viticulture and food production, Platyhelminths
Lecture: Annelida (earthworms and leeches), Mollusca (snails and slugs)
Practical: Principles and practices for collecting and preserving invertebrates

Week 10 of 13
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lecture: Nematoda (nematodes as animal and plant parasites)
Lecture: Arthropoda (slaters, millipedes, centipedes)
Practical: Worms, snails, slugs and nematodes: anatomy, biology and ecology

Week 11 of 13
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lecture: Arachnida (spiders, mites, ticks)
Lecture: Hexapoda (insects and related organisms)
Practical: Arthropod identification: anatomy, biology and ecology

Week 12 of 13
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lectures: Hexapoda (insects and related organisms)
Practical: Quizz on practicals 9-11 Invertebrate collection: identification and curation

Week 13 of 13
Optional revision sessions will be offered.

Specific Course Requirements
  1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
  2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
  3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
  4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.
Assessment Summary

Due to the current COVID-19 situation modified arrangements have been made to assessments to facilitate remote learning and teaching.

Assessment task Type of assessment Percentage for grading purposes Hurdle? Approximate
timing of assessment
Learning Outcome
Practical and tutorial exercises Formative and Summative 26% No Weeks 1-3, 5, 8, 9-12 1-5
Microbiology project work Formative and summative 20% No Weeks 4-6, 9 1, 2, 5
Quiz on invertebrate biology practicals 9-11 Summative 4% No Week 12 3, 4, 5
Online quizzes for learning and revision Formative 0% No Weeks 2-13 1-4
Mid-semester theory exam Formative and Summative 25% No Week 7 1, 2, 5
Final exam Summative 25% No Exam period 1-5

Assessment Related Requirements
Assessment Detail

Written examinations
Mid-semester examination: there will be a compulsory mid-semester examination in week 7, covering material presented in weeks 1-6, making up 25% in total of the final grade for the course.

Final examination: an end-of-semester written examination will be used to assess, summatively, understanding of the course material material covered in weeks 9-12 making up 25% in total of the final grade for the course.

Assessment of practical and tutorial work

Formative assessment. Tutorial classes will include diagnostic and formative assessment, to review information and understanding. Tutorial discussion topics and quizzes will be posted on MyUni.

Summative assessment and submission of work for assessment. Instructions for format, content and submission of practical reports, tutorial work and project work will be provided by the lecturer concerned.

Practical report 1. Single- and multi-celled microorganisms prepared in pairs, template distributed in class, data entered in practical sessions 2 and 3 and tutorial 2, due date to be advised in class, 5% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 2, 5

Practical report 2. Plant disease prepared in pairs, template distributed in class, due date to be advised in class, 5% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 2, 5

Practical report 3. Rumen microbiology individual exercise, instructions given in class, due date to be advised in class, 5% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 2, 5

Practical report 4. Invertebrate collection individual exercise, instructions given in class, due in week 13, 11% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 3, 4, 5

Microbiology project report (group poster). Microbial activities - experiments and interpretation presented as one poster per group of students, instructions in practical manual and tutorial 3, formative review of progress in tutorial 4, due 10.10 am on specified date, 20% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 2, 5

Quiz. Invertebrate biology practical work individual assessment task, instructions given in class, held in practical 12, 4% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 3, 4, 5

Submission

A completed assessment cover-sheet must be attached to each practical/tutorial report. Practical/tutorial reports are submitted in class unless stated otherwise.

A student who misses an assessed exercise or whose work is impaired through illness or equivalent may be offered a replacement assessment task.

Staff endeavour to return marked assessments and provide feedback to students within 2 weeks of submission.

Late submission of assessments
If an extension is not applied for, or not granted, then a penalty for late submission will apply. A penalty of 10% of the value of the assignment for each calendar day that is late (i.e. weekends count as 2 days), up to a maximum of 50% of the available marks will be applied. This means that an assignment that is 5 days or more late without an approved extension can only receive a maximum of 50% of the mark.

Course Grading

Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
Grade Mark Description
FNS Fail No Submission
F 1-49 Fail
P 50-64 Pass
C 65-74 Credit
D 75-84 Distinction
HD 85-100 High Distinction
CN Continuing
NFE No Formal Examination
RP Result Pending

Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

In response to the course SELT in 2018, the course workload has been reduced by removing two exercises and two demonstrations from practicals in weeks 2-3.

This section contains links to relevant assessment-related policies and guidelines - all university policies.

Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.


AUTHOR GUIDELINES

Authors should note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. Once the submission materials have been prepared in accordance with the Author Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online via the ScholarOne online editorial system.

By submitting a manuscript to or reviewing for this publication, your name, email address, affiliation, and other contact details the publication might require, will be used for the regular operations of the publication, including, when necessary, sharing with the publisher (Wiley) and partners for production and publication. The publication and the publisher recognize the importance of protecting the personal information collected from users in the operation of these services, and have practices in place to ensure that steps are taken to maintain the security, integrity, and privacy of the personal data collected and processed. You can learn more at https://authorservices.wiley.com/statements/data-protection-policy.html.

Invertebrate Biology invites papers describing original, significant research focused on understanding any aspect of the biology of invertebrate animals (metazoans), including morphology and ultrastructure genetics, phylogenetics, and evolution physiology and ecology neurobiology and behavior biomechanics reproduction and development and cell and molecular biology. Although the journal has a significant history of publishing articles on protozoans and other organisms (as Transactions of the American Microscopical Society), since 1995 the title and the taxonomic focus of the journal has shifted to invertebrate animals.

The journal focuses on studies of the biology of invertebrates in nature, or studies that use laboratory methods to understand invertebrate diversity and adaptations. Studies of invertebrates used in medicine, agriculture, or aquaculture (especially studies of species that are mainly associated with human industrial activity) should have a significant component that is related to the biology of the study organisms in nature (or their adaptations for life). Authors of studies that have a purely applied context (e.g., behavior or physiology of agricultural organisms in a purely agricultural setting) are encouraged to submit those manuscripts to a journal focused on applied research.

We encourage authors to support the society that publishes Invertebrate Biology, and receive the journal in which their manuscript appears, by becoming a member of the American Microscopical Society. (See also Wiley Online Library.)

Submissions to Invertebrate Biology fall into four main types: Research Article, Review Article, Book Review, and Description of a New Method.

Research Articles must be based on complete studies that represent a substantive advance in knowledge of the organisms.

Review Articles and Book Reviews are welcomed. Authors are encouraged to consult the editor-in-chief before submitting a manuscript in these categories.

Descriptions of a New Method may be considered for publication. Such manuscripts are expected to fulfill two criteria: first, the new method must be shown to work second, the new method must either satisfy a problem of broad general application in research on invertebrates, or the new method must be applied to the study of some specific aspect of the biology of the study organism(s). Authors of manuscripts that describe a new method are encouraged to explain in a cover letter how the manuscript fulfills those criteria.
New species descriptions and taxonomic revisions may form a secondary component of a research article in which the primary focus of the study is some aspect of the biology (rather than the classification) of the organisms. Authors of alpha taxonomy studies are encouraged to submit instead to one of the appropriate journals focused on species descriptions and classification.

4. PREPARING THE SUBMISSION

A manuscript must adhere to Invertebrate Biology guidelines before it will be approved and sent out for review.

Parts of the Manuscript
The manuscript should be submitted in separate files: main text file figures tables supporting information files.
Manuscripts must be submitted electronically through ScholarOne at: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/InvBio
Contact information, including working email addresses for all authors, must be provided as part of the ScholarOne manuscript submission process. Submitted manuscripts may be rejected by the editor-in-chief without this information. The corresponding author must provide an ORCID identifier coauthors are encouraged to provide ORCID identifiers as well.

Main Text File
The text file should be uploaded and presented in the following order:

i. Cover Page and keywords
ii. Abstract
iii. A short informative title containing the major key words. The title should not contain abbreviations (see Wiley's best practice SEO tips)
iv. A short running title of less than 40 characters
v. The full names of the authors
vi. The author's institutional affiliations where the work was conducted, with a footnote for the author’s present address if different from where the work was conducted
vii. Main text
viii. Acknowledgements
ix. References
x. Illustrations (Table, each table complete with title and footnotes, Figures, etc.)
xi. Figure Legends
xii. Supporting information files (if relevant).

Figures and supporting information must be supplied as separate files.

Authorship
Please refer to the journal’s Authorship policy in the Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations section for details on author listing eligibility.

Conflict of Interest Statement
Authors will be asked to provide a conflict of interest statement during the submission process. For details on what to include in this section, see the ‘Conflict of Interest’ section in the Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations section below. Submitting authors should ensure they liaise with all co-authors to confirm agreement with the final statement.

Cover Page
The first manuscript page should be a cover page that includes the manuscript title full names and institutional affiliations for each author full contact information for the corresponding author.

Keywords
On the Cover Page, include five additional keywords not in the title.

Abstract
The second page should include an Abstract that summarizes the main findings, conclusions, and significance of the work in a concise and informative way.

Headings
Four main headings of the manuscript are numbered sequentially: 1. INTRODUCTION 2. METHODS 3. RESULTS 4. DISCUSSION. Subheadings are numbered sequentially within each main heading (e.g., 2.1 Study location 2.1.2 Sample sites). Subheadings should be no more than 40 characters.

Main Text
Manuscripts must be written in clear, concise English. Manuscript text files should be double-spaced, with margins of 2.5 cm. Please use SI and metric units throughout: hr, hour min, minute s, second ms, millisecond L, liter ml, milliliter °C, degrees Celsius (please use the degree symbol, not a superscript “o”). For ratio units use a slash (e.g., “mg/kg”), but for compound ratios use superscripts (e.g., “mg kg -1 hr -1 ”). Use the unit of measurement as the abbreviation, not the name of the variable (e.g., “hr” or “min” for time, not “t”). Authors are asked to avoid using slash phrases such as “and/or”. Latin abbreviations such as “e.g.,”, “i.e.,” and “etc.” should be used in parenthetical phrases only.

Acknowledgments
Contributions from anyone who does not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed, with permission from the contributor, in an Acknowledgments section. Financial and material support should also be mentioned. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

References
The references should be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (7th edition, 2020). This means in-text citations should follow the author-date style in which the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998). Articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation articles with three or more authors abbreviate to the first author name plus et al. Include the year in the indirect repeated citations, for example, Several studies (Smith & John, 2005a, 2005b Smith 2003a, 2003b).
If two references with same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al., for example, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1994) and Bradley, Soo, et al. (1994).
If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. For example if references ‘Barrett, Koenig, Cave, Tang, Lane, and Gabriel (1996)’ and ‘Barrett, Koenig, Wood, Kengman, Mosy, and Daly (1996)’ appears in list, then these can be cited, respectively, as follows: Barrett, Koenig, Cave, et al. (1996) and Barrett, Koenig, Wood, et al. (1996).

The complete reference list should be sorted alphabetically by name and appear at the end of the manuscript. Please note that for journal articles, issue numbers are not included unless each issue in the volume begins with page 1, and a DOI should be provided for all references where available. For more information about APA referencing style, please refer to the APA FAQ.

Reference examples follow:

Audrain-McGovern, J., Lerman, C., Wileyto, E. P., Rodriguez, D., & Shields, P. G. (2004). Interacting effects of genetic predisposition: Depression on adolescent smoking progression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1224–1230.

Note: delete issue numbers for journals with consecutive pagination within a volume.

Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be provided in the reference list. If there are more than 20 authors, then list 19 authors, with ellipses, followed by last author:

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . . Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(10), 2043–2061.

The publisher location is no longer included in the reference.

Covey, S. R. (2013). The 7 habits of highly effective people: Powerful lessons in personal change. Simon & Schuster.

Harrison, P. L. (2011). Sexual reproduction of scleractinian corals. In Z. Dubinsky & N. Stambler (Eds.), Coral reefs: An ecosystem in transition (pp. 59–85). Springer.

Illustrations
Whenever practical, data should be presented in graphs rather than tables. Authors are encouraged to design tables and figures with the final journal page size in mind: each item should be formatted so that it is at least 85 mm wide (the width of a single column in the two-column journal layout) no more than 175 mm wide (the full-page width) and no more than 230 mm high (the full-page height). All elements of each table or figure (letters, structures, labels, symbols) must be large enough (at least 1.5 mm high) to be clear and readable at final size.

Tablesmust be submitted as text (not as an image, or a PDF). Authors are asked to use the Microsoft Word table formatting tools (or other similar format). Please do not make tables out of tab-delimited text. Each table should be numbered sequentially in the order in which it is referred to in the main text.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, not duplicate, information contained in the text. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend, and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text.

Figures
Invertebrate Biology now accepts embedded rich media files (video, audio) as figures. Video/audio files should be submitted along with the article itself, the transcript, and any other files at point of submission. The maximum file size for submitting audio or video content is 300 MB with a maximum duration of 5 minutes (note: the combined manuscript files for a submission, including video, audio, tables, figures, and text must not exceed 350 MB). Please refer to the embedded rich media author submission guidelines here for the complete instructions.

See also the additional instructions at the File Upload step on ScholarOne during the manuscript submission process.

Although authors are encouraged to send the highest-quality figures possible, for peer-review purposes, a wide variety of formats, sizes, and resolutions are acceptable. Click here for the basic figure requirements for figures submitted with manuscripts for initial peer review, as well as the more detailed post-acceptance figure requirements.

Figures must be submitted in publication-ready form. Each figure should be numbered sequentially in the order in which it is referred to in the main text. Each figure must be uploaded as an individual electronic file, one file per numbered figure. Additionally, figures may be inserted into the main text file if desired (reviewers often find it helpful to see the figure alongside the relevant text). Please use the RGB color palette for color figures please save figures without color content as grayscale (to reduce file sizes and upload times).

Figures composed as pixel-based images (e.g., photographs, micrographs, drawings) can be submitted as bitmaps in Tagged Image File Format (.tif), PNG (.png), or JPEG (.jpeg).TIFF images should have dimensions of at least 85 mm wide, up to 175 mm wide and up to 230 mm high, with a resolution at those dimensions of at least 300 dpi (for RGB color) or 500 dpi (for grayscale images). Micrographs, maps, anatomical drawings, and similar images should each include a scale bar in the figure and its value in the figure or the legend please do not use expressions of magnification. Please also refer to the figure preparation guidelines here for complete intstructions and submission checklist.

Maps or charts should not be based on Google Earth, Google Maps, or other copyright materials or data without express consent of the copyright holder. Authors are encouraged to draw maps or charts of study areas by using open-source tools and data, or using maps and charts that are in the public domain.

Figures composed as line art or data illustrations (e.g., scatterplots, bar graphs, box-and-whisker plots, regressions) should be submitted as vector graphics in Encapsulated PostScript (.eps) format or in PDF format. Data graphics with color content should use the RGB color palette. It is acceptable but less desirable to submit line art as TIFF images for line art submitted in TIFF format, the minimum acceptable resolution is 1200 dpi at final published size (at least 85 mm wide, up to 175 mm wide, up to 230 mm high).

Figures composed from multiple parts or panels must be submitted as a single electronic file (not as separate panels or parts). Each panel should be sequentially labeled with an upper-case letter (“A”, “B”, etc.) without parentheses or other characters (e.g., not “(A)” or “B)”). Figures composed from both color and grayscale images should be submitted at the higher resolution (i.e., 500 dpi) figures composed from both line art and bitmaps (e.g., data graphics plus micrographs) should be submitted as a TIFF bitmap at the highest resolution (i.e., 1200 dpi). Authors are encouraged to avoid placing a frame or box around individual panels in multipart figures, except where the frame adds information (e.g., frames that show latitude and longitude on maps or charts, or gutters that separate histological images from each other).

Wherever possible, authors should adopt a uniform style for labeling panels in multipart figures, structures in micrographs or anatomical drawings, locations on maps, or differences among treatment groups in data graphics (e.g., upper-case letters for panels in the upper-right corner of each panel scale bars for each panel in the lower left corner). To avoid confusion between labels for panels and labels for other elements, please use lower-case letters or abbreviated phrases for anatomical structures and other elements (e.g., “a” or “ant”), or to indicate differences among treatment groups (e.g., “a”, “b”, etc.) use upper-case letters (“A”, “B”, etc.) for panel labels only.

Full-page multipanel figures with high-resolution bitmap images may be large files. LZW compression (e.g., in Photoshop) can be used to reduce file size without affecting image quality. Further information on preparing electronic figures is available at Wiley Author Services. Authors can also consult the editor-in-chief for advice on preparing figures.

Authors are encouraged to submit additional, unlabeled photographs or drawings as possible cover illustrations.

For each species studied, the complete scientific name with taxonomic authority and date should be given for example,Ostrea edulis LINNAEUS 1758 for a species and its original taxonomic description or Pisaster brevispinus ( STIMPSON 1857), for a species with a revised taxonomic description or genus assignment. Use SMALL CAPS for the taxonomic authority, and do not use a comma to separate the taxonomic authority from the year this formatting helps to distinguish the taxonomic authority from the names of authors of cited reference works. For marine invertebrates, authors are encouraged to use the World Register of Marine Species as an authoritative source for up-to-date species names, taxonomic authorities, and classification.

The complete species name and taxonomic authority for the species studied should be given either at the first mention in the main text of the manuscript or in 2. METHODS, but not in the title or abstract. Use the full binomial (Ostrea edulis) at the first mention in each section of the paper, and then abbreviate (O. edulis, not Ostrea unless referring to the genus). The scientific name of any taxon is capitalized and treated as a singular noun, not a plural or an adjective (e.g., “Cancer productus is a wide-spread species”, not “Cancer productus are widespread.”). In particular, authors should avoid using taxon names as adjective phrases (e.g., “the chelae of C. productus”, not “C. productus chelae”).

Figure Legends
Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define or explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

Color figures
Figures submitted in colour may be reproduced in color online free of charge. Please note, however, that it is preferable that line figures (e.g. graphs and charts) are supplied in black and white so that they are legible if printed by a reader in black and white.

Additional Files

Supporting Information files
Supporting information files are not essential to the article, but provide greater depth and background. They are hosted online and appear without editing or typesetting. They may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc.

Files containing supporting information can be uploaded to a third-party repository (e.g., Dryad, FigShare, GitHub) or can be uploaded with the other manuscript files as Supporting Information files and hosted with the full-text article on Wiley Online Library. Please cite digital object identifiers (DOI) or accession numbers in 2. METHODS (or elsewhere as appropriate) for files uploaded to a third-party repository. Authors are encouraged to consult repository-vetting sites such as re3data.org or fairsharing.org for help in identifying registered and certified data repositories relevant to any specific discipline or subject area.

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Additional Supporting Information may be found online in the supporting tab for this article.

FIGURE S1 Brief text description of this figure

FIGURE S2 Brief text description of this figure

TABLE S1 Brief text description of this table

APPENDIX S1 Brief text description of this dataset or text file

VIDEO S1 Brief text description of this video

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Inorganic compounds: Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe (FIZ fiz-karlsruhe.de).

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Sample statements are available here. If published, statements will be placed in the heading of your manuscript.

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This journal follows the core practices of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and handles cases of research and publication misconduct accordingly (https://publicationethics.org/core-practices)”

Note this journal uses iThenticate’s CrossCheck software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Read Wiley’s Top 10 Publishing Ethics Tips for Authors here. Wiley’s Publication Ethics Guidelines can be found here.

ORCID
As part of the journal’s commitment to supporting authors at every step of the publishing process, the journal encourages the submitting author (only) to provide an ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript. Find more information here.

Authors of accepted articles will be required to sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) form. The CTA will allow the publisher to publish the article, to administer rights, and to follow up on any infringements of copyright.
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Accepted Articles
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Proofs
Authors will receive an e-mail notification with a link and instructions for accessing HTML page proofs online. Page proofs should be carefully proofread for any copyediting or typesetting errors. Online guidelines are provided within the system. No special software is required, most common browsers are supported. Authors should also make sure that any renumbered tables, figures, or references match text citations and that figure legends correspond with text citations and actual figures. Proofs must be returned within 48 hours of receipt of the email. Review and correction of a PDF (rather than HTML) proof, and return of that proof via e-mail, is possible in the event that the online system cannot be used or accessed.

ELocators
This journal now uses eLocators (not page numbers) for individual articles. eLocators are unique identifies for an article that serve the same function page numbers have traditionally served in the print world. When citing the published article, please insert the eLocator in place of the page number. For more information, please visit the Author Services eLocator page here.

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Please review Wiley’s guidelines on sharing your research here.

Invertebrate Biology is published in an online-only format. Print copies of single issues can be purchased from Wiley’s Print-on-Demand Partner. To order online, please visit Sheridan On Demand. Members of the American Microscopical Society are eligible for discounts on print orders.

When the article is published online:

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10: Invertebrate II - Biology

Course Coordinator: Professor Eileen Scott

Course Timetable

The full timetable of all activities for this course can be accessed from Course Planner.

Course Learning Outcomes

1 explain the role and importance of microorganisms and invertebrates
2 describe the form and function of bacteria, fungi and viruses
3 understand the principles of growth and reproduction of bacteria, fungi and viruses, and of identifying and classifying microorganisms
4 discuss beneficial and deleterious activities of microorganisms in agriculture, food and wine
5 discuss basic concepts of invertebrate taxonomy, physiology, function and evolution
6 describe the structure and function of molluscs, platyhelminths, nematodes, annelids and arthropods
7 discuss reproduction, life cycles and feeding relationships of invertebrates
8 demonstrate an understanding of the processes involved in the recognition and manipulation of key groups of microorganisms and invertebrates
9 demonstrate effective information handling and communication skills
10 demonstrate the ability to work in a team

University Graduate Attributes

This course will provide students with an opportunity to develop the Graduate Attribute(s) specified below:

  • informed and infused by cutting edge research, scaffolded throughout their program of studies
  • acquired from personal interaction with research active educators, from year 1
  • accredited or validated against national or international standards (for relevant programs)
  • steeped in research methods and rigor
  • based on empirical evidence and the scientific approach to knowledge development
  • demonstrated through appropriate and relevant assessment
  • developed from, with, and via the SGDE
  • honed through assessment and practice throughout the program of studies
  • encouraged and valued in all aspects of learning
  • technology savvy
  • professional and, where relevant, fully accredited
  • forward thinking and well informed
  • tested and validated by work based experiences
  • adept at operating in other cultures
  • comfortable with different nationalities and social contexts
  • able to determine and contribute to desirable social outcomes
  • demonstrated by study abroad or with an understanding of indigenous knowledges
  • a capacity for self-reflection and a willingness to engage in self-appraisal
  • open to objective and constructive feedback from supervisors and peers
  • able to negotiate difficult social situations, defuse conflict and engage positively in purposeful debate
Required Resources
Recommended Resources

Cargill M and Bellotti M (2004) Written Communication in the Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, The University of Adelaide. http://www.agwine.adelaide.edu.au/students/external/carwripg1.pdf

General microbiology and bacteria

Madigan MT, Martinko JM et al. (2012) Brock Biology of Microorganisms (13th edition). Pearson. (earlier editions, 2000 onwards, are also suitable).

Willey JM, Sherwood LM and Woolverton CJ (2014) Prescott&rsquos Microbiology (9th edition). McGraw-Hill. (earlier editions, 2005 onwards, are also suitable).

Deacon JW (2006) Fungal Biology (4th edition). Blackwell Publishing.

Gow NAR and Gadd GM (1995) The Growing Fungus. Chapman & Hall.

Ingold CT and Hudson HJ (1993) The Biology of Fungi (6th edition). Chapman & Hall.

Hull R (2009 or electronic resource) Comparative Plant Virology (2nd edition). Academic Press.

Mahy BWJ, Van Regenmortel MVH et al. (2010) Desk Encyclopedia of Plant and Fungal Virology. Academic Press.

Wagner EK and Hewlett MJ (2004) Basic Virology (2nd edition). Blackwell Publishing.

Agrios GN (1997, 2005 or electronic resource) Plant Pathology (4th, 5th edition). Academic Press.

Fleet GH (1992) Wine Microbiology and Biotechnology. Harwood Academic Publishers.

Fugelsang KC (1996) Wine Microbiology. Chapman & Hall.

or Fugelsang KC and Edwards CG (electronic resource) Wine Microbiology. Springer.

Pitt J and Hocking AD (1997) Fungi and Food Spoilage (2nd edition). Blackie Academic Publishers.

or Pitt J and Hocking AD (electronic resource) Fungi and Food Spoilage (3rd edition). Springer.

Barker, GM (ed.) (2001 or electronic resource) The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK. 558 p.

Barnes RSK, Calow PP, Olive PJW, Golding DW and Spicer JI (2001) The invertebrates: a synthesis (3rd edition). Wiley-Blackwell.

Edwards, CA, Hendrix P and Arancon N (2008) Biology and ecology of earthworms (4th edition). Springer, New York.

Harvey, MS and Yen AL (1989) Worms to wasps: an illustrated guide to Australia's terrestrial invertebrates. Oxford University Press.

Moore J (2006 or electronic resource) An introduction to the invertebrates (2nd edition). Cambridge University Press.

Naumann ID (ed.) (1994) Systematic and applied entomology: an introduction. Melbourne University Press.

Ruppert EE, Fox RS and Barnes RD (2004) Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach, 7th ed. Thomson-Brooks/Cole.

Triplehorn CA and Johnson NF (2005) Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects (pp. 401-402). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Online Learning

Teaching and course materials will be posted on MyUni (http://myuni.adelaide.edu.au/). Lectures will be recorded and posted on MyUni. Tutorial topics will be posted for discussion. A series of videos demonstrating common microbiological techniques will be available on MyUni (Practicals pages). Interactive pre-laboratory activities using the software Articulate will be used in formative and summative assessment. Online quizzes will be available to help with review and revision (formative assessment).

Learning & Teaching Modes
Workload

The information below is provided as a guide to assist students in engaging appropriately with the course requirements.

Learning Activities Summary

Week 1
Topic: Introduction and overview of microorganisms
Lecture: Role and importance of microbiology in agriculture and related areas
Lecture: Microbial growth and its control
Tutorial: Overview of course and assessment
Practical: Microbial culture techniques, use of dissecting and compound microscopes

Week 2
Topic: Bacteria and fungi
Lecture: Bacteria - form and function
Lecture: Fungi - form and function
Practical: Single-celled microorganisms: form and function, methods for counting cells

Week 3
Topic: Viruses, Identification and classification
Lecture: Viruses - form and function
Lecture: Identification and classification of microorganisms
Tutorial (small groups): Bacteria and fungi &ndash structure and function
Practical: Complete work on single-celled microorganisms Multi-celled microorganisms - form and function

Week 4
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Microbial ecosystems - introduction
Lecture: Food microbiology
Tutorial: Introduction to project
Practical: Project work on beneficial and deleterious activities of microorganisms

Week 5
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Plant-microbe interactions &ndash disease
Lecture: Plant disease and control
Practical: Project work (continued, 1 hour) Microbes as pathogens: bacteria, fungi and virus diseases

Week 6
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Plant-microbe interactions &ndash rhizobium
Lecture: Bioremediation, compost, silage
Tutorial: Optional tutorial (over lunch): Preparation for mid-semester written exam
Tutorial (small groups): Review progress in project and discuss assessment
Practical: Project work (continued)

Week 7
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lectures: Rumen microbiology
Practical: Rumen microbiology

Week 8
Topic: Microbial ecosystems
Lecture: Animal disease
Lecture: Wine microbiology
Optional, redeemable mid-semester exam (morning)
Optional "clinic" on finalising the project poster (after lectures)

Week 9
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lecture: Overview of invertebrates of importance in agriculture, viticulture and food production, Platyhelminths
Lecture: Annelida (earthworms and leeches), Mollusca (snails and slugs)
Practical: Principles and practices for collecting and preserving invertebrates

Week 10
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lecture: Nematoda (nematodes as animal and plant parasites)
Lecture: Arthropoda (slaters, millipedes, centipedes)
Practicals: Worms, snails, slugs and nematodes: anatomy, biology and ecology

Week 11
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lecture: Arachnida (spides, mites, ticks)
Lecture: Hexapoda (insects and related organisms)
Practical: Arthropod identification: anatomy, biology and ecology

Week 12
Topic: Invertebrate biology
Lectures: Hexapoda (insects and related organisms)
Tutorial: Preparation for the written exam
Practical: Invertebrate collection: identification and curation

Specific Course Requirements
Small Group Discovery Experience

Students undertake project work in weeks 4 to 6, inclusive, in groups of 4. Each group selects a topic through which to explore the beneficial and deleterious activities of microorganisms, then plans and conducts experimental work in the laboratory. Each group presents their work as a poster. Students are required to assess their contribution and that of their group members to the project as part of the assessment.

Each student documents his or her individual contribution through a journal.

Guidance is provided throughout by academic staff and demonstrators, and exemplars of posters and journals are provided.

  1. Assessment must encourage and reinforce learning.
  2. Assessment must enable robust and fair judgements about student performance.
  3. Assessment practices must be fair and equitable to students and give them the opportunity to demonstrate what they have learned.
  4. Assessment must maintain academic standards.
Assessment Summary

Assessment task Type of assessment Percentage for grading purposes Hurdle? Approximate
timing of assessment
Learning Outcome
Practical and tutorial exercises Formative and Summative 23% No Weeks 1-3, 5, 7, 9-12 2, 3, 5, 6-10
Microbiology project work Formative and summative 15% No Weeks 4-6, 9 1-4, 8-10
Quiz on invertebrate biology practicals 9-11 Summative 2% No Week 11 5-9
Online quizzes for learning and revision Formative 0% No Weeks 2-13 1-9
Non-compulsory mid-semester theory exam Formative and Summative 0-30% No Week 8 1-4, 8-9
Final exam Summative 30-60% Yes Exam period 1-9

Assessment Related Requirements

Attendance at practical classes and tutorials is compulsory. Students who miss a practical or tutorial session should obtain a replacement assessment from the lecturer in charge and submit it on the date advised. There will be no opportunity for additional assessment on the practical component of the course.

To pass this course a student must obtain a final mark of at least 50% and a minimum of 40% (24 out of 60 marks) in the written exam (hurdle requirement).

Assessment Detail

Written examinations
Mid-semester examination: there will be a non-compulsory mid-semester examination in week 8, covering material presented in weeks 1-6, potentially making up 30% in total of the final grade for the course. The mid-semester exam will be redeemable in the end of semester exam there will be a separate section in the final exam (Section A) that will correspond to the material covered in the mid-semester exam. Students may choose not to complete this section in the final exam, in which case the mid-semester exam marks will be used automatically to calculate the final grade and the final exam will have a weighting of 30%. If students attempt both the mid-semester exam and the corresponding section in the final exam, the best mark of their two attempts will be used to calculate the final grade. If students do not attempt the mid-semester exam, then they must attempt the corresponding section in the final exam, in which case the final exam weighting will be 60%.
Students will be offered the opportunity to review their answers in the non-compulsory mid-semester examination with academic staff. Replacement/alternative assessment is not available for the mid-semester exam except on medical or compassionate grounds.

Final examination: an end-of-semester written examination will be used to assess, summatively, understanding of the course material. The examination will be divided into three parts:
A. an optional 90-minute section consisting of questions corresponding to those in the non-compulsory mid-semester exam (potentially 30% if used to redeem mid-semester exam mark)
B. a compulsory 30-minute section consisting of material covered in weeks 7-8
C. a compulsory 60-minute section consisting of material covered in weeks 9-12.

Assessment of practical and work

Formative assessment. Tutorial classes will include diagnostic and formative assessment, to review information and understanding. Tutorial discussion topics and quizzes will be posted on MyUni.

Summative assessment and submission of work for assessment. Instructions for format, content and submission of practical reports, tutorial work and project work will be provided by the lecturer concerned.

Practical report 1. Single- and multi-celled microorganisms individual report, template distributed in class, data entered in practical sessions 2 and 3 and tutorial 2, due at end of practical 3, 5% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 2, 3, 8, 9

Practical report 2. Plant disease prepared in pairs, template distributed in class, due at end of practical 5, 5% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9

Practical report 3. Rumen microbiology individual practical report, instructions given in class, due at end of practical 7, 5% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9

Practical report 4. Invertebrate collection individual exercise, instructions given in class, due in week 12, 8% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Microbiology project report (poster and journal). Microbial activities - experiments and interpretation presented as group poster and individual journal, instructions in practical manual and tutorial 3, formative review of progress in tutorial 4, due 10.10 am on specified date, 15% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 1, 4, 8, 9, 10

Quiz. Invertebrate biology practical work individual assessment task, instructions given in class, held in practical 11, 2% of final mark, addresses learning objectives 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

Submission

A completed assessment cover-sheet must be attached to each practical/tutorial report. Practical/tutorial reports are submitted in class unless stated otherwise.

A student who misses an assessed exercise or whose work is impaired through illness or equivalent may be offered a replacement assessment task.

Staff endeavour to return marked assessments and provide feedback to students within 2 weeks of submission.

Late submission of assessments
If an extension is not applied for, or not granted, then a penalty for late submission will apply. A penalty of 10% of the value of the assignment for each calendar day that is late (i.e. weekends count as 2 days), up to a maximum of 50% of the available marks will be applied. This means that an assignment that is 5 days or more late without an approved extension can only receive a maximum of 50% of the mark.

Course Grading

Grades for your performance in this course will be awarded in accordance with the following scheme:

M10 (Coursework Mark Scheme)
Grade Mark Description
FNS Fail No Submission
F 1-49 Fail
P 50-64 Pass
C 65-74 Credit
D 75-84 Distinction
HD 85-100 High Distinction
CN Continuing
NFE No Formal Examination
RP Result Pending

Further details of the grades/results can be obtained from Examinations.

Grade Descriptors are available which provide a general guide to the standard of work that is expected at each grade level. More information at Assessment for Coursework Programs.

Final results for this course will be made available through Access Adelaide.

The University places a high priority on approaches to learning and teaching that enhance the student experience. Feedback is sought from students in a variety of ways including on-going engagement with staff, the use of online discussion boards and the use of Student Experience of Learning and Teaching (SELT) surveys as well as GOS surveys and Program reviews.

SELTs are an important source of information to inform individual teaching practice, decisions about teaching duties, and course and program curriculum design. They enable the University to assess how effectively its learning environments and teaching practices facilitate student engagement and learning outcomes. Under the current SELT Policy (http://www.adelaide.edu.au/policies/101/) course SELTs are mandated and must be conducted at the conclusion of each term/semester/trimester for every course offering. Feedback on issues raised through course SELT surveys is made available to enrolled students through various resources (e.g. MyUni). In addition aggregated course SELT data is available.

In response to course SELTs in 2011 and 2013, lectures and practicals concerning invertebrate biology have been modified to improve the coverage of organisms and activities important in agriculture, viticulture and food science.

In response to positive feedback in an informal survey in 2012 and course SELTs in 2013 and 2014, the non-compulsory, redeemable mid-semester exam, which was run as a trial in 2012, is retained.

This section contains links to relevant assessment-related policies and guidelines - all university policies.

Students are reminded that in order to maintain the academic integrity of all programs and courses, the university has a zero-tolerance approach to students offering money or significant value goods or services to any staff member who is involved in their teaching or assessment. Students offering lecturers or tutors or professional staff anything more than a small token of appreciation is totally unacceptable, in any circumstances. Staff members are obliged to report all such incidents to their supervisor/manager, who will refer them for action under the university's student’s disciplinary procedures.

The University of Adelaide is committed to regular reviews of the courses and programs it offers to students. The University of Adelaide therefore reserves the right to discontinue or vary programs and courses without notice. Please read the important information contained in the disclaimer.


Types of Invertebrates

Eighty-five percent of invertebrates – some 923,000 species – are arthropods. Mollusks have approximately 100,000 distinct species. Some of the most common types of invertebrates are:

  • protozoans – single-celled organisms such as amoebas and paramecia
  • annelids – earthworms, leeches
  • echinoderms – starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers
  • mollusks – snails, octopi, squid, snails, clams
  • arthropods – insects, spiders, crustaceans such as shrimp, crabs, lobsters

Popular Science Monthly/Volume 10/November 1876/Nature of the Invertebrate Brain II

These are animals wholly different in kind from those we have just been considering, mostly aquatic, and all of them devoid of hollow, articulated, locomotor appendages. Their organs of vegetative life attain a disproportionate development. On the other hand, what are termed the "organs of relation" present a wide range of variation, as may be imagined from the fact that while some of the simplest representatives of the Mollusca consist of mere motionless sacs or bags, containing organs of digestion, respiration, circulation, and generation, its more complex forms are active predatory creatures, endowed with remarkable and varied powers of locomotion, and with sense-organs as keen and as highly developed as those of insects. The lower type is represented by the motionless ascidian, and the higher by the active and highly-endowed cuttle-fish.

Omitting any reference to the Polyzoa, we may turn our attention first of all to the Tunicata, of which the solitary ascidians may be taken as the type. They are marine animals, possessing no powers of locomotion, and having no head. The current of sea-water, serving for respiratory purposes, and, at the same time, containing food-particles, enters a large branchial chamber, through an open, funnel-like projection of the investing tunic of the animal, the orifice of which ​ is guarded by sensitive tentacula and a sphincter muscle. The mouth is situated at the bottom of this branchial sac, down the side of which minute particles of food are swept by ciliary action, so as to be brought within the simple commencement of the œsophagus. The effete sea-water passes through the walls of this branchial cavity into a general body-chamber, in which the viscera are contained. This cavity is bounded externally by a muscular expansion, lining the outer cellulose tunic. By the periodical contraction of this muscular sac, the water which enters it, together with food-residues and ova, is expelled through another funnel-like opening, adjacent to and very similar to that by which it gains entry to the branchial chamber.

Although these ascidians have a definite alimentary canal, a circulatory system, and respiratory organs, together with a distinct genital apparatus, their life of relation with the external world is of the simplest description. They are stationary creatures, and have no prehensile organs, food being brought to the commencement of their alimentary canal by ciliary action.

In correspondence with such a simple mode of life, we might expect to find a very rudimentary nervous system, and this expectation is fully realized. The Tunicata possess a single small nervous ganglion lying between the bases of the two funnels through which water is taken in and discharged. This ganglion receives branches from the tentacula guarding the orifice of the oral funnel, and possibly from the branchial chamber, while it gives off outgoing, filaments to the various parts of the muscular sac, and perhaps to the alimentary canal, and some of the other internal organs. In some of the solitary Tunicata a rudimentary visual function is presumed to exist. At all events, pigment-spots are situated on, or in very close relation with, the solitary ganglion. This single body seems to serve for the performance, in a rudimentary manner, of the various functions discharged by at least two pairs of ganglia in a large number of higher Mollusca, viz., those known as the cerebral and the parieto-splanchnic or branchial.

The brachiopods are among the oldest and most wide-spread of the forms of life in the fossil state, and the geographical distribution of their living representatives at the present day is also very wide. Like the Tunicata, they are headless organisms, and lead a sedentary existence, attached either by a pedicle or by one division of their bivalve shells. The mouth is unprovided with any appendages for grasping food—nutritive particles being brought to it by means of ciliary currents. Numerous muscles exist which connect the valves of the shell to one another, and with the inclosed animal. And, though the visceral organization of the brachiopods is somewhat complex, no definite sense-organs have yet been detected in any of them. In the nervous system of these sedentary animals, there is, therefore, nothing answering to a brain as it is ordinarily constituted, ​ though ganglia exist around the œsophagus which must receive afferent impressions of some kind, and from which branches proceed to the various muscles and viscera of the body.

Such low sensory endowments as are presented by the Brachiopoda would be wholly incompatible with that degree of visceral complexity of organization which they possess, had it not been for the fact that they lead such a passive existence in respect to quest of food. They do not go in search of it at all—they remain securely anchored while food is brought to the entrance of their alimentary canal by means of cilia. The absence of sense-organs and of a brain is, indeed, only compatible with a quasi-vegetative existence such as this.

The lamellibranchs, or ordinary headless bivalve Mollusca, also include some representatives—such as the oyster and its allies—which lead a sedentary life after the fashion of the Mollusca already mentioned. The valves of the shell in these lamellibranchs are lateral, instead of being dorsal and ventral as among the branchiopods. The shell is, however, closed by a single adductor muscle, and it is opened, when this relaxes, by means of an elastic hinge.

The mouth of the oyster is surrounded by four labial appendages, whose functions are not very definitely known. It presents no other appendages of any kind in the neighborhood of the mouth, and, as in the two types of Mollusca already described, the food which it swallows is brought to the entrance of its œsophagus by means of ciliary currents. This well-known animal has a large and important nervous ganglion (Fig. 8, b) situated posteriorly, and close to the great adductor muscle. It gives off' branches to this muscle, to each half of the mantle, to the gills (c, c), and it sends forward two long parallel branches (d, d), which serve to connect it with a much smaller anterior ganglion (a, a) situated on each side of the mouth. These anterior or labial ganglia are joined by a commissure arching over the mouth, and also by a more slender thread beneath the mouth, from which filaments (e) are given off to the stomach. These latter filaments may be considered to have a function similar to that of the stomatogastric nerves in insects. The anterior ganglia receive nerves (f) from the labial processes, probably for the most part afferent in function. At all events, these processes have no distinct muscular structure.

Other lamellibranchs possess a remarkable muscular appendage known as the foot, which is in relation with an additional single or double nervous ganglion, and is used in various ways as an organ of locomotion. The animals possessing this organ are also provided with a second adductor muscle for closing their shells. Speaking of the various uses of the foot among bivalves, Prof. Owen says: "To some which rise to the surface of the water it acts, by its expansion, as a float to others it serves by its bent form as an instrument to drag them along the sands to a third family it is a burrowing organ to many it aids in the execution of short leaps."

​ These bivalves possessing a foot present three pairs of ganglia instead of two—the anterior or oval, the posterior or branchial, and the inferior or pedal. It occasionally happens, however, that the ganglia of the posterior or of the inferior pair become approximated or even fused into one. The fusion of the posterior pair takes place, as in the oyster, when the branchiæ from which they receive nerves come close together posteriorly. On the other hand, in those mollusks in which the branchiæ are farther apart, the two ganglia remain separate, and are connected only by a short commissure, as in the mussel (Fig. 9, b).

The separate existence or fusion of the inferior or pedal ganglia depends upon the size and shape of the foot. The nerves in relation with these ganglia are distributed almost wholly to this organ and its retractor muscles. Where the foot is broad the ganglia remain separate, and are merely connected by a commissure. But where the foot is small and narrow, as in the mussel, the two ganglia become fused into one (Fig. 9, p).

Some of the special senses are unquestionably represented among these headless Mollusca, though the distribution of the different organs is very peculiar. Thus in Pecten, Pinna, Spondulus, the oyster, and many others, very distinct and often pedunculated ocelli are distributed over both margins of the pallium or mantle. These vary in number from forty to two hundred or more, and are in connection with distinct branches of the circumpallial nerves. In the razor-fish, ​ the cockle, Venus, and other bivalves possessing those prolongations of the mantle known as siphon-tubes, the eyes are situated either at the base or on the tips of the numerous small tentacles distributed around the orifices of these tubes, which in those of them living in the sand are often the only parts appearing above the surface. The margins of the mantle are also garnished by a number of short though apparently very sensitive tentacles, in which the creature's most specialized sense of touch seems to reside. Some of these tactile appendages, as well as some of the ocelli, send their nerves to the posterior or parieto-splanchnic ganglia, while those situated on the anterior borders of the mantle communicate with the anterior or oral ganglia. The latter ganglia also receive filaments from the so-called labial appendages, whose function is uncertain, though it has been suggested that they may be organs of taste or smell. Lastly, in close relation with the pedal ganglia or ganglion, there are two minute saccules (Fig. 9, s), to which an auditory function is usually ascribed.

Thus we find among these headless mollusks a distribution of specially impressible parts or sensory organs, such as cannot be paralleled among any other animals. The sense of touch and the sense of sight seem to be more especially in relation with the great posterior ganglia. These sensory functions are, however, to a minor extent shared by the oral ganglia, which are also in relation with parts that may possibly be organs of taste or smell. On the other hand, auditory impressions are invariably brought into relation with the inferior or pedal ganglia. In these headless mollusks, therefore, the functions pertaining to the brain in other animals are distributed in a very remarkable manner, and the anterior ganglia cannot in them be properly regarded as representing such an organ.

The viscera in these lamellibranchs are also in relation with the three pairs of ganglia, and not exclusively with any one of them. Filaments to the intestinal canal and the liver are usually given off from the commissures between the anterior and the posterior ganglia the genital organs are in connection with filaments coming from the commissures between the anterior and the inferior or pedal ganglia while the branchiæ are in relation with the ganglia at the posterior part of the body. [1]

There is another interesting class of mollusks—the Pteropoda—which, in respect of powers of locomotion and the possession of a distinct head, may, if for no other reasons, be said to lead us on from the comparatively sluggish bivalve Mullusca to the gasteropods and the cephalopods, all of which are distinguished by definite and wide reaching powers of locomotion, and by the possession of a distinct head carrying sense-organs, and a more or less developed brain.

​ The possession, by many members of this class, of two fin-like muscular expansions attached to the side of the head induced Cuvier to give them the name Pteropoda. Prof. Owen says: "All the species of Pteropoda are of small size they float in the open sea, often at great distances from any shore, and serve, with the Acalephæ, to people the remote tracts of the ocean. In the latitudes suitable to their well-being, the little Pteropoda swarm in incredible numbers, so as to discolor the surface of the sea for leagues and the Clio and the Limacina constitute, in the northern seas, the principal article of food of the great whales."

Some of the least highly-organized members of this class, such as the Hyalaceos, are provided with a bivalve shell, and cannot be said to possess a head. They have a simple commencement of the alimentary canal at the anterior extremity of the body but since this anterior extremity has no tactile appendages and no eyes, and inasmuch as it also contains no cerebral ganglia, it can have no claim to be considered as a head. Their chief nervous centre consists of a flat, somewhat quadrate, sub-œsophageal ganglion, to the anterior angles of which is attached a nervous commissure which extends upward so as to encircle the gullet, though there are no ganglia either on or at the sides of this tube in the usual situation occupied by cerebral ganglia.

In other pteropods devoid of a shell, we meet with a higher organization. Thus in Clio there is a distinct head bearing sensory appendages in the form of two tentacula and two eyes, and containing in its interior a brain. This brain is represented by two connected super-œsophageal ganglia, which are in relation, by means of nerves, with the cephalic sensory organs, and in connection with the sub-œsophageal commissure are the two pedal and two branchial ganglia. The two pairs of ganglia exist separately in Clio and its allies, though they are combined into one quadrate mass in Hyalea. In this latter there are two acoustic vesicles in contact with the anterior part of the great ganglion, while in Clio similar vesicles are in connection with the anterior pair of sub-œsophageal ganglia—that is, with the pair which corresponds with the pedal ganglia of the common bivalve mollusks.

Gasteropods constitute a class of organisms which, in point of numbers, can only be compared with the still more numerously represented class of insects. Their name is derived from the fact that these animals crawl by means of a large muscular expansion stretched out beneath the viscera. The locomotion of the members of this class may be said to be, in the main, dependent upon their own individual efforts, so that, in this respect, they differ widely from the pteropods, whose locomotions are brought about by winds driving them along the surface of the water on which they float.

Some gasteropods are terrestrial, air-breathing animals, though by ​ far the greater number are aquatic, and breathe by means of gills. But being all of them, as Prof. Owen says, "endowed with power to attain, subdue, and devour organic matter, dead and living," we find their nervous system not only better developed, more complex and concentrated, but also in relation with more highly-evolved organs of special sense and exploration. It offers considerable variations in its general arrangement, especially as regards relative positions of ganglia, though these modifications are, to a great extent, referable to differences in the outward configuration of the body.

Some of the differences in external form which are to be met with among gasteropods are well illustrated by the limpet or the chiton, as compared with the snail. Here differences in form coexist with differences in habit, so that we almost necessarily meet with notable variations in the disposition of the principal parts of the nervous system.

In the limpet we find that the two small cerebral ganglia (Fig. 10, a) are widely separated from one another, and lie at the side of the œsophagus. Each receives a rather large nerve from one of the tentacles, and a smaller optic nerve. A commissure connects these cerebral ganglia above the œsophagus with one another, while each of them is also in relation by means of two descending commissures with a series of four connected ganglia forming a transversely-arranged row beneath the œsophagus. Of these the two median ganglia (B) correspond with the pedal, while the two external (C) correspond with the branchial ganglia, though they are here separated from one another by an immensely wide interval.

However small and undeveloped the duplex brain of the limpet may be, this organ exists in an even more rudimentary state in some other gasteropods. Thus, in the chiton, which is a close ally of the limpet, and about the most simply organized of all the gasteropods, there are neither tentacles nor eyes, and, as a consequence of this, ​ there are (Fig. 11) no supra-œsophageal ganglia. There is nothing, in fact, to which the term brain can be appropriately applied.

But, if we turn now to the much more active snail, we find the nervous system existing in a more developed and concentrated form. There is (Fig. 12, l) a large ganglionic mass situated over the œsophagus, each half of which receives a considerable bundle of nerve-fibres (f) from the eye (b) of the smaller side, which is situated at the tip of the larger tentacle. It also receives another bundle of nerves (k)

from the small tentacle on each side, which has in all probability a tactile function. The auditory vesicles are here in a new position. They are in immediate relation with the posterior aspect of these ganglia constituting the brain, though in other gasteropods they are, as in bivalve Mollusca, found to be connected with the pedal ganglia. That gasteropods are endowed with a rudimentary sense of smell is now generally admitted by naturalists, though hitherto they have been unable to locate this endowment in any particular organ or surface-region.

The brain of the snail is connected, by means of a triple cord or commissure on each side of the œsophagus, with a still longer double ganglionic mass (m). This latter body, situated beneath the œsophagus, represents the pair of pedal and the pair of branchial ganglia of the bivalve Mollusca. Here nerves are received from the integument and given off to the muscles of the foot, while they are also received and given off from the respiratory and other organs.

In the nautilus and some other representatives of the next class, Cephalopoda, the nervous system attains a development only slightly in advance of that met with among the highest gasteropods, though in the active and predaceous cuttle-fish, and in its near ally, the octopus, we find the nervous system presenting the highest development to be met with among the sub-kingdom Mollusca.

​ One of the most striking characteristics of the principal nerve-centres of the cuttle-fish is the fact of the existence of a very large optic ganglion (Fig. 13, 2), in connection with a well-developed eye, on each side. Each optic lobe, according to Lockhart Clarke, is "as large as the rest of the cephalic ganglia on both sides taken together." From each of these lobes an optic peduncle passes inward to join a supra-œsophageal ganglionic mass, which bears on its surface a large bilobed ganglion (1), thought by Clarke to be homologous with the cerebral lobes of fishes. It is connected, by means of two short cords,

with a much smaller bilobed ganglion, known as the pharyngeal (7). This double ganglion receives nerves from what are presumed to be the organs of taste and smell, and gives off nerves to the tongue and powerful parrot-like jaws with which the creature is provided.

The supra-œsophageal mass is connected, by cords at the sides of the œsophagus, with a very large ganglion lying beneath it (4), which is partially divided into an anterior and a posterior division. The anterior division is in relation, by means of large nerves (6), with the feet and tentacles. A commissure also unites it with the pharyngeal ganglion, so that the tentacles and arms are thus able to be brought ​ into correlated action with the jaws. The posterior portion of the sub-œsophageal mass receives nerves from, and also gives off nerves (14) to, the branchiæ and other viscera, as well as to the mantle (13, 13).

The auditory organs and their nerves are also connected with this branchial and pallial ganglion. These organs are lodged in the substance of the cartilaginous framework investing the nerve-ganglia—a structure which seems to answer to a rudimentary skull. The roots of the auditory nerves are probably principally in relation with the pallial portion of the branchio-pallial ganglion. The locomotions of these creatures are largely brought about by contractions of the pallial chamber, though these contractions of the mantle are also subservient to the respiratory function.

The share which the branchio-pallial ganglia take in bringing about and regulating the movements of the cuttle-fish would seem to explain the connection of the auditory nerves with them rather than with the homologues of the pedal ganglion, with which the auditory saccules are in relation in most other mollusks. But, whatever may be the precise explanation of the different connections of the auditory nerves in the cuttle-fish tribe, the fact remains that their connections are still away from the brain proper. They are, as in most other Mollusca and in those insects in which auditory organs are known to occur, in intimate relation with one of the principal motor centres.

This survey of some of the principal forms of the invertebrate brain, brief though it has been, should have sufficed to call attention to the following important facts and inferences:

1. That sedentary animals, though they may possess a nervous system, are often headless, and then have nothing answering to a brain.

2. That where a brain does exist, it is invariably a double organ. Its two halves may be widely separated from one another, though at other times they are fused into a single mass.

3. That the component or elementary parts of the brain in these lower animals are ganglia in connection with some of those special impressible parts or sense-organs, by means of which the animal is brought into harmony with its environment or medium.

4. That the sensory ganglia, which as an aggregate constitute the brain of invertebrate animals, are connected with one another both on the same and on opposite sides of the body, either by continuous growth or by means of commissures.

5. The size of the brain as a whole, or of its several parts, is strictly regulated by the development of the animal's special sense-organs. This is so, because, the more these impressible surfaces become elaborated and attuned to help in discriminating between numerous different external impressions, the larger are the ganglionic masses with which their nerves are in relation.

6. Of the several sense-organs and sensory ganglia whose activity ​ lies at the root of the intellectual and instinctive life (such as it is) of invertebrate animals, some are much more important than others. Two are notable for their greater proportional development, viz., tactile organs and visual organs. The former are soon outstripped in importance by the latter. The visual sense, indeed, and its related nerve-ganglia, attain an altogether exceptional development in the higher insects and mollusks.

7. The sense of taste and that of smell are developed to a much lower extent. It is even difficult to point to distinct organs or impressible surfaces as certainly devoted to the reception of impressions of this kind.

8. The sense of hearing is also developed to a very slight extent. No distinct sense-organ of this kind has been discovered, except in a few insects and in members of the sub-kingdom Mollusca. It is, however, of no small interest to find that, where these organs do exist, the nerves issuing from them are not in direct relation with the brain, but are immediately connected with one of the principal locomotor nerve-centres of the body.

9. The associated ganglia representing the single or double brain are, in animals possessing a head, the centres in which all impressions from sense-organs, save those last mentioned (the auditory), are reflected on to appropriate groups of muscles. This "reflection occurs either at once or after the stimulus has passed through other ganglia, whence it is passed along nerves to those groups or combinations of muscles whose simultaneous or successive contractions give rise to the organism's reply to such impressions. It may be easily understood, therefore, that in all such animals perfection of sense-organs, size of brain, and power of executing varied muscular movements, are intimately related to one another.

10. But a fairly parallel correlation also becomes established between these various developments and that of the internal organs. An increasing visceral complexity is gradually attained. Such increased visceral complexity carries with it the necessity for a further development of nervous communications. The several internal organs have to be brought into more perfect relation with the sensori-motor nervous system, and also with one another, for all joint actions in which two or more of them may be concerned.

11. In invertebrate animals the visceral system of nerves has, when compared with the rest of the nervous system, a greater proportional development than among vertebrate animals. Its importance among the Invertebrata is not dwarfed by the enormous development of the brain and spinal cord, which gradually declares itself among the Vertebrata.

12. Impressions emanating from the viscera and stimulating the organism to movements of various kinds, whether in pursuit of food or of a mate, would, therefore, have a proportionally greater ​ importance as constituting part of the ordinary mental life of invertebrate animals. Movements thus initiated will be found to afford a basis for the development of many so-called instinctive acts.


10: Invertebrate II - Biology

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        Living Invertebrates , 1987
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        Blackwell, Boston, MA ISBN 0-86542-312-1
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      LECTURE SCHEDULE - Winter 2017

      (see also textbook reading assignments and cladogram of animal phyla)

      JANUARY
      Mon 9 Introduction: Why study invertebrates? (course preliminaries, outline)
      Wed 11 Diversity, phylogeny, classification (outline)
      (Metazoa cladogram)
      Fri 13 Key characters defining the Tree of Life (outline)
      Mon 16 Kingdom Protista (outline 1, outline 2)
      (Protista cladogram, study images)
      Wed 18 Origin of Metazoa Porifera (I): Introduction (outline)
      Fri 20 Porifera (II): Function and diversity (outline) Placozoa (outline)
      (Porifera cladogram, study images, animation)
      Mon 23 Cnidaria (I): Introduction, tissues, cell types (outline)
      Wed 25 Cnidaria (II): Diversity- Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa (outline)
      (Cnidaria cladogram & study images Life cycle animations: Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa)
      Fri 27 Cnidaria (III): Diversity- Anthozoa (outline) Ctenophora (outline)
      (Ctenophora cladogram & study images)
      Mon 30 Bilateria: General characteristics (outline)
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      FEBRUARY
      Wed 1 Protostomia and Deuterostomia (outline)
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      Fri 3 Platyhelminthes (I): Introduction, Turbellaria (outline + links)
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      Mon 6 Platyhelminthes (II): Parasitic taxa (outline), Nemertea (outline)
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      Wed 8 Aschelminthes (I): Overview (outline)
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      Fri 10 Aschelminthes (II): Diversity- Nematoda, Rotifera (outline), Other phyla (outline)
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      Mon 13 Mollusca (I): Introduction & overview (outline)
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      Wed 15 Mollusca (II): Diversity- Minor classes (outline)
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      Fri 17 MID-TERM LECTURE EXAM
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      Mon 27 Mollusca (III): Diversity- Gastropoda (outline)
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      (Read Garstang's memorable poem: How the gastropod got it's twist )

      MARCH
      Wed 1 Mollusca (IV): Diversity- Bivalvia, Scaphopoda (outline)
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      Fri 3 Mollusca (V): Diversity- Cephalopoda (outline)
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      Mon 6 Metamerism Annelida (I)- Polychaeta (outline)
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      Wed 8 Annelida (II): Oligochaeta (outline)
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      Fri 10 Annelida (III): Hirudinea (outline)
      Mon 13 More Worms: Echiura, Pogonophora, Sipuncula (outline)
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      Wed 15 Arthropod (I): Origins, Onychophora, Tardigrada (outline)
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      Fri 17 Arthropoda (II): Overview, exoskeleton and molting (outline)
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      Mon 20 Arthropoda (III): Limbs and muscles (outline)
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      Wed 22 Arthropoda (IV): Eyes, respiration and coeloms (outline)
      Fri 24 Arthropoda (V): Diversity, Introduction and Crustacea (outline, outline)
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      Mon 27 Arthropod (VI): Other subphyla (outline)
      (Arthropoda & Pterygota cladograms, other arthropod study images)
      Wed 29 Arthropod (VI): Other subphyla (cont.) (outline)
      (Arthropoda & Pterygota cladograms, other arthropod study images)
      Fri 31 Deuterostomia Echinodermata (I): Overview, body plans (outline)
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      APRIL
      Mon 3 Echinodermata (II): Skeleton, water-vascular system (outline)
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      Wed 5 Echinodermata (III): Feeding, locomotion, development (outline)
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      Fri 7 Lophophorates, Hemichordates (outline)
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      Mon 10 Invertebrate chordates (outline)
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      Wed 12 Deuterostome relations, The Tree of Life review (outline)
      Fri 14 No Class (Good Friday)
      Fri 21 FINAL LECTURE EXAM
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      Wed May 3 DEFERRED EXAMINATION
      (0900, BioSciences Z211)

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      Invertebrates - One of Two Major Animal Groupings

      There are two basic groups of higher animals. They are vertebrates and invertebrates. While both have advanced through the processes of evolution, there is one fundamental difference. Invertebrates do not have backbones. Both groups are in the Kingdom Animalia, but their bodies are organized differently. What makes invertebrates different? All invertebrates share common traits. At the bottom of the invertebrate world are the sponges. Sometimes they don't fit in but they are still part of the group. Here's the nice and neat little list.

      (1) They are multicellular. It's more than being a colony of individual cells. The cells are working together for the survival of the organism. All of the cells have specific duties and responsibilities.

      (2) No backbone. We already talked about this one. That's the whole definition of invertebrate, no vertebrae.

      (3) No cell walls. When we talked about plants, we always mentioned cell walls. Invertebrates don't have them. Remember that even if none of them look like animals, they are. Being an animal means you have no cell wall.

      (4) Here are a few that have the qualifier "most" attached. That means not all of them have the trait, but most do. Most of them have tissues (not sponges) that are specific organizations of cells. Most of them reproduce sexually (not asexually). That means two gametes combine to form a new organism. Those gametes come from separate organisms (male and female).

      Most invertebrates can move. Even sponges move when they are very young and very small. Once they settle down they don't move anymore. Other invertebrates like lobsters and insects move around their whole lives. Most invertebrates are organized in a way called symmetrical. Symmetrical organization means when you can draw a line down the middle of the organism and the two sides look like mirror images. Draw a line down the middle of yourself and one side looks like the other side. If you draw a line down the middle of an octopus you would find two sides with equal parts. Remember we said most? Sponges and some coral are not symmetrical.

      (5) Invertebrates can't make their own food. Scientists use the word heterotrophic. Heterotrophs feed off other things to get their energy. Plants are autotrophic. They make their own food. Being heterotrophic is one of the main characteristics of being an animal. We eat things, whether it is plants or other animals. That's just the way the world works.


      Subphylum Hexapoda

      The name Hexapoda denotes the presence of six legs (three pairs) in these animals as differentiated from the number of pairs present in other arthropods. Hexapods are characterized by the presence of a head, thorax, and abdomen, constituting three tagma. The thorax bears the wings as well as six legs in three pairs. Many of the common insects we encounter on a daily basis—including ants, cockroaches, butterflies, and flies—are examples of Hexapoda.

      Amongst the hexapods, the insects (Figure 1) are the largest class in terms of species diversity as well as biomass in terrestrial habitats. Typically, the head bears one pair of sensory antennae, mandibles as mouthparts, a pair of compound eyes, and some ocelli (simple eyes) along with numerous sensory hairs. The thorax bears three pairs of legs (one pair per segment) and two pairs of wings, with one pair each on the second and third thoracic segments. The abdomen usually has eleven segments and bears reproductive apertures. Hexapoda includes insects that are winged (like fruit flies) and wingless (like fleas).

      Figure 1. In this basic anatomy of a hexapod insect, note that insects have a developed digestive system (yellow), a respiratory system (blue), a circulatory system (red), and a nervous system (red).

      Practice Question

      Which of the following statements about insects is false?

      1. Insects have both dorsal and ventral blood vessels.
      2. Insects have spiracles, openings that allow air to enter.
      3. The trachea is part of the digestive system.
      4. Insects have a developed digestive system with a mouth, crop, and intestine.

      Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates, Volume 10, Part B, Progress in Developmental Endocrinology

      DR. K.G. ADIYODI, formerly Professor of Physiology and Dean,Faculty of Science, Calicut University, Kerala, India andVice-Chancellor, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi, is now Public Service Commissioner to Government of India,New Delhi. A distinguished invertebrate reproductive biologist, whogave the discipline of invertebrate reproductive biology a global distinctiveness and identity of its own, Dr. K.G. Adiyodi isFounder Secretary of the International Society of Inverebrate Reproduction, Founder Editor-in-Chief of the International Journalof Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, and Founder Presidentof the Indian Society of Invertebrate Reproduction.

      DR. RITA G. ADIYODI, formerly Rhodes Visiting Fellow, SomervilleCollege, Oxford (1976-78), is Professor of Zoology at CalicutUniversity. She served as President of the Crustacean Reprobiologyand Aquaculture Bureau of India and as Vice-President of the Indian Society of Invertebrate Reproduction. Dr. Rita Adiyodi representedIndia on the International Committee of Comparative Endocrinology.
      The Adiyodis have worked extensively, over the past three decades,on the endocrinology and physiology of growth and reproduction ofarthropods, chiefly crustaceans.


      Watch the video: Βιολογία #4: Φυσική Επιλογή (January 2022).