Many women cannot or will not feed their children with breast-milk. It is my understanding breast-milk has many advantages over formula. Some psychological like oxytocin and some physiological like advanced antibodies. Have there been any attempts to create a formula with better psychological and physiological properties? Is it even possible to include antibodies in formula or milk?
It is definitely possible to include antibodies and other biological molecules in formula to better approximate that of its mother's milk. However, there's no way you could mass-produce this. Every mother has unique antibodies, even horomones that are the same in different people are present at different concentrations. The current "formula" on the market is good for as many people as possible.
Isolating antibodies from a mother to include in formula milk would be insanely, insanely expensive. Think thousands of dollars for a carton of formula. Not to mention the hassle of frequent blood and serum draws from the mother for antibody isolation.
So, yes, this is possible (and I wouldn't be surprised if someone with a lot of money to burn has tried it). It's not remotely cost-effective or feasible, though.
Infants need vitamin B12 for supporting brain development and producing healthy red blood cells. Infants who do not get adequate vitamin B12 can become deficient. If left untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency in infants can lead to permanent brain damage. Vitamin B12 is found in foods from animals, primarily meat, fish, milk and milk products, and eggs therefore infants of mothers who consume a vegetarian or vegan diet may be at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency.
Do infants get enough B12 from breast milk?
Usually. Vitamin B12 is transferred through the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy and through breast milk after birth. Infants who drink breast milk from a mother who consumes adequate amounts of vitamin B12 or infants who drink infant formula, will receive enough vitamin B12. However, if a breastfeeding mother is deficient in vitamin B12, her infant may also become deficient.
Vitamin B12 is most commonly found in foods from animals therefore, infants who only receive breast milk from mothers who consume no animal products are at greater risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency shortly after birth. Breastfeeding mothers on a strict vegetarian or vegan diet should consult their healthcare provider about taking a supplement that contains the appropriate amount of vitamin B12. Mothers can learn more about why vitamin B12 is important, how much is needed, and what foods are high in vitamin B12. external icon
Breastfeeding mothers who have had a malabsorptive bariatric procedure (such as gastric bypass surgery), who have pernicious anemia (low number of red blood cells caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12), or who have certain gastrointestinal disorders, may not be able to absorb various vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin B12, folic acid (vitamin B9), iron, and calcium. Healthcare providers should monitor these mothers for nutrient deficiencies, including vitamin B12 deficiency.
Breastfeeding and Lactose Intolerance
Mothers are often told that their fussy or gassy babies are ‘lactose intolerant’, but this is rarely the case. Lactose intolerance has become a catch all label for any baby who is fussy, or gassy, or has any kind of intestinal upset.
Formula companies love to use this label to their advantage, with ads for products like “Similac Sensitive®: For fussiness and gas due to lactose sensitivity. Most babies are fussy and gassy at times. But if it seems your baby has more frequent fussiness and gas, it could be a sign that he might need another baby formula. You can trust Similac Sensitive to provide a strong start for your babies developing digestive system.”
Actually, you can’t trust the formula companies to give good advice about breastfeeding, because it works to their advantage for mothers to use formula instead of breast milk. Would you go to a tobacco company for advice on how to quite smoking? Probably not.
Many newborn babies spit up and have a lot of gas simply because their digestive systems are immature, and they are just beginning to making the transition from the womb (where they receive nutrients 24/7 via the placenta), to digesting milk.
Starting off with small amounts of colostrum eases the newborn infant’s digestive systems into taking in larger amounts of breast milk. After their milk ‘comes in’, nursing mothers produce transitional milk (a mixture of colostrum and milk), and then mature milk, 7-10 days after birth.
Even though breast milk is much easier to digest than formula, some spitting up, fussiness, and gas are to be expected in all newborns, regardless of whether they are breastfed or formula fed. Many nursing moms worry about the fact that their baby has such frequent, runny stools, but this is normal for exclusively breast fed infants.
There are other conditions besides immature digestive systems that may cause spitting up and gas, including reflux, supplements like fluoride or iron, and gastrointestinal illnesses (stomach flu).
Mothers of fussy babies go to their doctor for answers on how to make the gas or spitting up go away, and in the majority of cases, they just can’t give you any easy answers. Doctors absolutely hate to get questions from new parents about gassiness, spitting up, and colic. That’s because for the most part, they have no idea exactly what causes these symptoms or how to treat them. Having an unhappy baby is traumatic for parents, especially if they feel that there is nothing they can do to “make it better”.
With time, the majority of babies digestive systems mature on their own and they outgrow the symptoms – some sooner than others, but most by three or four months. Of course, when your baby is uncomfortable or in pain, even a few minutes seems like an eternity.
Here’s what you need to know about breastfeeding and lactose intolerance:
- Lactose is the sugar found in all dairy products, including both breast milk and formula.
- Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down lactose (milk sugar) so it can be easily digested.
- All babies are born with lactose in their intestines. As they grow older and wean, the lactase enzyme decreases. That’s why lactose intolerance rarely shows up before age 3 or 4, since that’s around the natural age of weaning.
- “Primary lactose intolerance” is an extremely rare condition in which infants are born with an inability to digest the lactose contained in all dairy products, including both formula and breast milk. It is estimated that only one baby in 85,000 is born with galactosemia. Babies with this genetic disorder gain weight, may become dehydrated and are unhealthy from the beginning. They have to eat a non diary based formula in order to thrive.
- There is another, much more common type of lactose intolerance, called “secondary lactose intolerance.” Gastrointestinal illnesses like stomach flu (which are more common in formula fed babies) can cause diarrhea, which irritates the baby’s stomach lining. This irritation can cause a temporary decrease in lactase production.
- This type of ‘transitory lactose intolerance’ only lasts until the baby’s stomach lining is healed.
- Regardless of what the nursing mother eats or drinks, her breast milk will contain the same amount of lactose.
- Most nursing babies who are exclusively breastfed regulate their intake and don’t overfeed, but they may receive an over load of lactose due to their mom’s oversupply issues. The problem isn’t the lactose in her milk – it’s the fact that her baby takes in more milk (and more lactose) that their systems can handle. This can result in a ‘foremilk/hindmilk imbalance’.
To find out more about how to handle the problems that can occur when you have too much milk, see the article ‘Oversupply: Too Much Breast Milk’.
Lactose intolerance is a term that is widely used to encourage breastfeeding mothers to switch to formula, but in reality, very few babies are truly ‘lactose intolerant’.
Think carefully before switching your baby to formula when you’re told he is ‘lactose intolerant’. Formula companies are quick to play on mother’s fears by convincing them that their products are better for babies. Remember, it’s in their best interest to discourage breastfeeding and promote their products.
I was grocery shopping the other day and saw a can of very expensive formula. When checking the label, it said that it was ‘inspired by breast milk’.
This tells you something right there.
Let the buyer beware, especially when it comes to a decision that will deprive your baby of the many well documented benefits of breastfeeding.
An Abundance of Helpful Molecules
Several molecules in human milk besides secretory IgA prevent microbes from attaching to mucosal surfaces. Oligosaccharides, which are simple chains of sugars, often contain domains that resemble the binding sites through which bacteria gain entry into the cells lining the intestinal tract. Thus, these sugars can intercept bacteria, forming harmless complexes that the baby excretes. In addition, human milk contains large molecules called mucins that include a great deal of protein and carbohydrate. They, too, are capable of adhering to bacteria and viruses and eliminating them from the body.
The molecules in milk have other valuable functions as well. Each molecule of a protein called lactoferrin, for example, can bind to two atoms of iron. Because many pathogenic bacteria thrive on iron, lactoferrin halts their spread by making iron unavailable. It is especially effective at stalling the proliferation of organisms that often cause serious illness in infants, including Staphylococcus aureus. Lactoferrin also disrupts the process by which bacteria digest carbohydrates, further limiting their growth. Similarly, B12 binding protein, as its name suggests, deprives microorganisms of vitamin B12. Bifidus factor, one of the oldest known disease-resistance factors in human milk, promotes the growth of a beneficial organism named Lactobacillus bifidus. Free fatty acids present in milk can damage the membranes of enveloped viruses, such as the chicken pox virus, which are packets of genetic material encased in protein shells. Interferon, found particularly in colostrum-the scant, sometimes yellowish milk a mother produces during the first few days after birth-also has strong antiviral activity. And fibronectin, present in large quantities in colostrum, can make certain phagocytes more aggressive so that they will ingest microbes even when the microbes have not been tagged by an antibody. Like secretory IgA, fibronectin minimizes inflammation it also seems to aid in repairing tissue damaged by inflammation.
Frequently Asked Questions
Many factors can affect how long breast milk can be stored in various locations, such as storage temperature, temperature fluctuations, and cleanliness while expressing and handling breast milk. These factors make it difficult to recommend exact times for storing breast milk in various locations.
Does the temperature of the room matter if I plan to leave breast milk on the counter until I use it?
Yes. If you live in a warmer climate or keep your home at a warmer temperature, you should place breast milk in the refrigerator if it will not be used within a few hours. Breast milk does not spoil as quickly at cooler temperatures.
What is the recommended method to store and serve breast milk that is leftover from a feeding?
If your baby did not finish the bottle, the leftover breast milk can still be used within 2 hours after the baby is finished feeding. After 2 hours, leftover breast milk should be thrown away. To avoid wasting unfed milk, consider storing, thawing, and warming milk in smaller amounts.
How can I determine the temperature of my refrigerator and freezer?
Your refrigerator should be 40°F or below, and your freezer should be 0°F or below. If your refrigerator/freezer thermostats do not show the temperatures, use inexpensive freestanding appliance thermometers external icon . Even if your refrigerator/freezer do show the temperatures, appliance thermometers may be important if you lose power or have mechanical problems.
If I move stored breast milk that has been in a kitchen freezer to a deep/chest freezer or vice versa, do the storage recommendations change?
No. You can count the age of the milk from the first time that it was frozen, regardless of when it was moved. As long as the temperature of the freezer is 0°F or below, it does not matter whether it is a kitchen freezer or a deep freezer. Breast milk can be stored in the freezer (at 0° F or colder) for up to 12 months, although using it within 6 months is best. The temperature of kitchen freezers is typically 0° F and although deep freezers or chest freezers may be able to operate at a temperature colder than 0° F, both types of freezers fall within the guideline of keeping frozen milk at a temperature of 0° F.
Moving frozen breast milk between freezer locations should be done quickly to ensure that the milk stays frozen. It may be useful to pack the frozen breast milk on ice packs while transporting the milk from one location to another.
If I don&rsquot use breast milk stored in the refrigerator within a few days, can I still freeze it to use later?
After 4 days of refrigeration, your breast milk should be used or thrown away. Breast milk has properties that slow the growth of bad bacteria. These properties begin to decline after a few days of refrigeration. If you think you won&rsquot use breast milk within a few days, the sooner you freeze it, the better.
Can I mix freshly expressed breast milk with older breast milk?
Mixing freshly expressed breast milk with already cooled or frozen milk is not advised because it can rewarm the older stored milk. It is best to cool freshly expressed milk before combining it with older, previously cooled or frozen milk. It is also important to consider storage duration guidelines for breast milk. For example, if combining cooled milk pumped on different days, the duration of storage should be based on when the older milk was first stored.
The power went out! Do I have to throw out all of my stored frozen breast milk?
Your breast milk may still be safe, but it depends on how long the power is out and how defrosted or warm the breast milk becomes. Freezers, if left unopened and full during a power outage, will keep food safe for about 48 hours (about 24 hours if half full). When freezers are full, the other frozen items help keep the freezer colder longer. The refrigerator will keep food cold for about 4 hours if it is unopened. While the power is out, keep the freezer and refrigerator doors closed as much as possible.
Once the power is back on, check the condition of your stored breast milk. Frozen breast milk that has started to thaw but still contains ice crystals can be refrozen. If your breast milk has completely thawed but still feels cold, put it in the refrigerator and use it within the next day or throw it away.
Where can I store my breast milk at work?
Expressed breast milk is a food and may be stored alongside other foods in any refrigerator that is appropriate for food storage. Employers, coworkers, cleaning staff, other family members, and childcare providers should not consider or treat breast milk as a biohazard. Storing breast milk in a shared refrigerator and washing pump parts in community break rooms are unlikely to pose health risks (sanitary or safety issues) however, it is important that the breast pump equipment be cleaned, dried, and stored in a sanitary (clean) environment to protect the equipment (and expressed breast milk) from contamination.
What are the recommendations for properly storing expressed breast milk while traveling?
- You are allowed to carry more than 3.4 ounces of breast milk in your carry-on bag, as well as ice and gel packs.
- The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) external icon has specific screening procedures for anyone traveling with breast milk.
- Consider keeping a copy of the TSA regulations in your carry-on bag.
Expressed breast milk may be stored and transported in an insulated cooler bag with frozen ice packs for up to 24 hours, or else frozen in dry ice (follow safety precautions when handling dry ice external icon ). Once breast milk is cooled, it should remain cool until it is consumed. Breast milk that has been transported in an insulated cooler bag with frozen ice packs can then be refrigerated or frozen.
Depending on the destination, if no reliable breast milk storage is available, a mother traveling with expressed breast milk could consider using temperature-controlled shipping to transport breast milk or discarding her expressed breast milk. Continuing to express breast milk regularly will help a mother to maintain her breast milk supply until she and her nursing infant or child can be reunited. Visit CDC&rsquos Travel Recommendations for the Nursing Mother webpage to learn more.
Are there baby drinks closer to breast-milk? - Biology
You may not be able to overfeed a baby at the breast, but it is possible to overfeed (and overwhelm) a baby with a bottle of breast milk. But don't worry! Paced feeding is an alternative method that you can use too!
Paced feeding is a method that helps to prevent this problem, and may be useful for you to learn if you’ll be returning to work and pumping, if you’re exclusively pumping, or if your partner will be feeding an occasional bottle of breast milk.
Research has shown that feeding babies anything by the bottle can have an effect on their ability to regulate their intake. It’s likely a result of the “maternal control” over how much is taken by the bottle which doesn’t occur in feeding at the breast, which overrides babies’ needs. One theory suggests that this inability to self-regulate intake is related to a higher risk of overweight and obesity.
Paced feeding allows babies more control over his or her intake of breastmilk by responding to their cues, and may also prevent post-feeding fussiness by reducing overfeeding. Since much of paced feeding also mimics feeding at the breast, it can also support the breastfeeding relationship and help babies transition back and forth from breast to bottle. Babies may be less likely to get accustomed to the fast flow of a bottle and reject the breast.
How does paced feeding work?
- Feed based on the baby’s feeding cues, not a set schedule.
- Hold the baby so she is in a more on an upright or almost sitting position. Avoid feeding by the bottle when the baby is reclined, as this reduces her control over the flow of milk.
- Hold the bottle in a horizontal position, tilted only enough to keep milk in the bottle nipple.
- Don’t force the nipple into the baby’s mouth. Rather, elicit the rooting response and encourage the baby to “latch” onto the nipple by touching the nipple to the baby’s nose.
- Ensure that the baby’s mouth placement on the nipple is good.
- Allow the baby to set the pace of the feeding, and aim for the same length of time as feeding at the breast might take.
- Encourage the baby to pause frequently, resting the bottle nipple on the baby’s lips or taking a break to burp him. The baby will start sucking again when he’s ready.
- Switch sides during the feeding to mimic feeding at the breast and even out eye stimulation.
- Never try to force the baby to take more than she wants to just to finish the bottle. If you’re worried about squandering precious breast milk (we understand!), heat up smaller amounts - maybe 2 ounces - at a time, and providing more as needed.
A few resources on paced feeding that may be helpful:
- Kellymom offers a handout that can be printed and shared with child care providers which explain this method
- A video showing paced feeding
- Best for Babes’ guide to bottlefeeding as if you were breastfeeding
Are your nipples getting sore from pumping? Our USDA Certified Organic Nipple Cream is a great pump lubricant and doesn't need to be washed off prior to nursing.
In the beginning, the body makes breast milk automatically whether you want to breastfeed or not. But, after the first week or so, the release of the milk-making hormones and the continuation of breast milk production is based on supply and demand. If you want to establish and maintain a healthy milk supply for your child, you have to breastfeed or pump frequently.
Frequent breastfeeding stimulates the nerves in the breast to send a message to the pituitary gland in your brain.
The pituitary gland releases the hormones prolactin and oxytocin. Prolactin tells the milk-making glands in your breast to make breast milk. Oxytocin signals the let-down reflex to release the milk. It causes the alveoli to contract and squeeze the breast milk out into the milk ducts.
The milk is then removed by the baby or a breast pump. If you breastfeed every one to three hours (at least eight to 12 times a day), you’ll be emptying your breasts, keeping your prolactin levels up, and stimulating milk production to continue. This stage of full milk production begins about the 9th day and lasts until the end of breastfeeding. It is called galactopoiesis or lactogenesis III.
Milk in flux
Breast milk changes dramatically over the course of the day. For example, levels of cortisol – a hormone that promotes alertness – are three times higher in morning milk than in evening milk. Melatonin, which promotes sleep and digestion, can barely be detected in daytime milk, but rises in the evening and peaks around midnight.
Night milk also contains higher levels of certain DNA building blocks which help promote healthy sleep. Day milk, by contrast, has more activity-promoting amino acids than night milk. Iron in milk peaks at around noon vitamin E peaks in the evening. Minerals like magnesium, zinc, potassium and sodium are all highest in the morning.
Here's exactly how your body makes milk (spoiler: it's freakin' amazing!) Daytime milk may pack a special immune punch. Among mothers who provided researchers with milk samples across the first month postpartum, immune components – including key antibodies and white blood cells – looked higher in day milk compared to night milk. Another study found higher levels of a component important for immune system communication in day milk compared to night milk.
While it’s clear that milk changes over the course of the day, scientists know little about what this means for infant health.
Researchers do know that the hormones and immune components in breast milk are passed along to infants, and that infants are starting to develop and refine their own circadian rhythms during the first months of life. It’s plausible that the chronosignals in breast milk would help to shape infants’ own circadian biology. Differences in infant feeding patterns might help explain why there’s such variability in the development of these daily rhythms from one infant to another.
Seeds are a nutritional gift! They are the very beginning of life for every plant on earth. They provide a concentrated source of all the nutrients found in the mature plant as well as the nutrients needed to grow the tiny seed into a beautiful blooming plant. Seeds are high in protein and essential minerals such as iron, zinc, and calcium, as well as healthy fats.
Like nuts, seeds are not clinically proven to have lactogenic properties, but they have been used for centuries to help breastfeeding mothers thanks to their high vitamin and mineral content. Every seed has its unique nutritional makeup, so choose a variety inluding sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds.
Breastfeeding Your Baby
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months of a baby&rsquos life. Breastfeeding should continue up to the baby&rsquos first birthday as new foods are introduced. You can keep breastfeeding after the baby&rsquos first birthday for as long as you and your baby would like.
Breast milk has the right amount of fat, sugar, water, protein, and minerals needed for a baby&rsquos growth and development. As your baby grows, your breast milk changes to adapt to the baby&rsquos changing nutritional needs.
Breast milk is easier to digest than formula.
Breast milk contains antibodies that protect infants from certain illnesses, such as ear infections, diarrhea, respiratory illnesses, and allergies. The longer your baby breastfeeds, the greater the health benefits.
Breastfed infants have a lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Breast milk can help reduce the risk of many of the short-term and long-term health problems that can affect preterm babies.
Breastfeeding triggers the release of a hormone called oxytocin that causes the uterus to contract. This helps the uterus return to its normal size more quickly and may decrease the amount of bleeding you have after giving birth.
Breastfeeding may make it easier to lose the weight you gained during pregnancy.
Breastfeeding may reduce the risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer.
Most healthy newborns are ready to breastfeed within the first hour after birth. Holding your baby directly against your bare skin (called "skin-to-skin" contact) right after birth helps encourage the baby to start breastfeeding.
You also should ask about "rooming in," which means having your baby stay in your room with you instead of in the hospital nursery. Having your baby nearby makes it easier to breastfeed while you are still in the hospital.
Holding your baby directly against your bare skin right after birth triggers reflexes that help the baby to attach or &ldquolatch on&rdquo to your breast. Cup your breast in your hand and stroke your baby&rsquos lower lip with your nipple. The baby will open the mouth wide, like a yawn. Pull the baby close to you, aiming the nipple toward the roof of the baby&rsquos mouth. Remember to bring your baby to your breast&mdashnot your breast to your baby.
When babies are hungry, they look alert, bend their arms, close their fists, and bring their fingers to their mouths. Offer your breast when your baby first starts bringing fingers to the mouth. Crying is a late sign of hunger, and an unhappy baby will find it harder to latch. When full, babies relax their arms and legs and close their eyes.
Let your baby set the schedule. During the first weeks of life, most babies feed at least 8 to 12 times in 24 hours, or at least every 2 to 3 hours (timed from the start time of one feeding to the start time of the next feeding).
Many newborns breastfeed for 10 to 15 minutes on each breast. But they also can nurse for much longer periods (sometimes 1 to 2 hours at a time) or feed very frequently (every 30 minutes, which is called &ldquocluster feeding&rdquo).
Some babies feed from one breast per feeding, while others feed from both breasts. When your baby releases one breast, offer the other. If your baby is not interested, plan to start on the other side for the next feeding.
Breastfeeding is a natural process, but it can take some time for you and your baby to learn. Most women are able to breastfeed. A few women cannot breastfeed because of medical conditions or other problems.
Lots of breastfeeding help is available. Peer counselors, nurses, doctors, and certified lactation consultants can teach you what you need to know to get started. They also can give advice if you run into challenges. And remember, if you can't breastfeed or decide not to, it's OK. There are other feeding options, and you will find the one that is best for you, your baby, and your family.
Your body needs about 450 to 500 extra calories a day to make breast milk for your baby. If your weight is in the normal range, you need about 2,500 total calories per day.
Eat fish and seafood 2 to 3 times a week, but avoid eating fish with high mercury levels. Do not eat bigeye tuna, king mackerel, marlin, orange roughy, shark, swordfish, or tilefish. Limit albacore tuna to 6 ounces a week. If you eat fish caught in local waters, check for advisories about mercury or other pollutants. If no information is available, limit your intake of such fish to 6 ounces a week, and do not eat any other fish that week.
Your obstetrician&ndashgynecologist (ob-gyn) may recommend that you continue to take your prenatal multivitamin while you are breastfeeding.
Drink plenty of fluids, and drink more if your urine is dark yellow.
Drinking caffeine in moderate amounts (200 milligrams a day) most likely will not affect your baby. Newborns and preterm infants are more sensitive to caffeine&rsquos effects. You may want to consume a lower amount of caffeine in the first few days after your baby is born or if your infant is preterm.
If you want to have an occasional alcoholic drink, wait at least 2 hours after a single drink before you breastfeed. The alcohol will leave your milk as it leaves your bloodstream&mdashthere is no need to express and discard your milk. Drinking more than two drinks per day on a regular basis may be harmful to your baby and may cause drowsiness, weakness, and abnormal weight gain.
Most medications are safe to take while breastfeeding. Although medications can be passed to your baby in breast milk, levels are usually much lower than the level in your bloodstream. The latest information about medications and their effects on breastfed babies can be found at LactMed, a database of scientific information. If you are breastfeeding and need to take a prescription medication to manage a health condition, discuss this with your health care team and your baby's doctor.
If you smoke, quitting smoking is the best thing you can do for your health and your baby's health. Secondhand smoke increases the risk of SIDS. But it's better for your baby to breastfeed than to formula-feed even if you continue to smoke. Be sure not to smoke around the baby.
Using illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines) and taking prescription drugs in ways that were not prescribed for you can harm your baby if you use them while breastfeeding. And although marijuana is now legal in several states, you should not use it if you are breastfeeding. If you need help stopping drug use, talk with your ob-gyn, a lactation consultant, or other health care practitioner.
Many birth control methods are available that can be used while breastfeeding, including nonhormonal methods (copper intrauterine device (IUD), condoms, and diaphragms) and hormonal methods. There are some concerns that hormonal methods of birth control can affect milk supply, especially when you first start breastfeeding. If you start using a hormonal method and your milk supply decreases, talk with your ob-gyn or other member of your health care team about other options for birth control.
Antibodies: Proteins in the blood that the body makes in reaction to foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.
Birth Control: Devices or medications used to prevent pregnancy.
Exclusive Breastfeeding: Feeding a baby only breast milk and no other foods or liquids, unless advised by the baby&rsquos doctor.
Hormone: A substance made in the body that controls the function of cells or organs.
Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small device that is inserted and left inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
Obstetrician&ndashGynecologist (Ob-Gyn): A doctor with special training and education in women&rsquos health.
Oxytocin: A hormone made in the body that can cause contractions of the uterus and release of milk from the breast.
Ovarian Cancer: Cancer that affects one or both of the ovaries.
Preterm: Less than 37 weeks of pregnancy.
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): The unexpected death of an infant in which the cause is unknown.
Uterus: A muscular organ in the female pelvis. During pregnancy, this organ holds and nourishes the fetus. Also called the womb.