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Lab 7 Musculoskeletal Anatomy Part 3: Articulation and Kinematics of movement - Biology


Objectives:

At the end of this lab, you will be able to…

  1. Differentiate between classifications of articulations
  2. Correctly describe the types of movements at a given articulation
  3. Describe what is meant by the kinematic chain

Pre-Lab Exercises:

After reading through the lab activities prior to lab, complete the following before you start your lab.

1. The classification of articulations of the body is based on: .
2. The difference between levers is the location of the relative to force being applied and the action of the muscles contracting.
3. Movement of the hand away from body laterally is called , while movement medially is called .
4. Based on the kinematic classification of the articulations, the allow for the most movement while the have the least.

Materials:

  • Skeleton
  • Joint Models
  • Stickers
  • Felt pens

When examining the articulations of the body it is important to remember the relationship between structure and function. In this, we can use the shape of the articulation to determine the different kinematics (movements) that the articulations allow for the bones when combined with lines of pull of the ligaments, tendons and muscles that attach to the bones of the articulation.

Articulations:

There are three classifications of articulations based on the ability (called or degrees of freedom) for movement to occur. The ability to move or degrees of freedom are an indication of the number of directions (or axis) that the articulating bones are able to move at that articulation. These are identified as being synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and diarthrosis. Synarthrosis are articulations with no movement occurring between bones, meaning 0 degrees of freedom for movement. Amphiarthrosis is the type of articulations with minimal movement provided between bones meaning 0 or 1 degree of freedom for movement. Diarthrosis articulations are typically thought of articulations, such that the bones are able to move about each other, meaning at 1-2 degrees of freedom for movement.
Within the Diarthrosis joints there are six types of articulations commonly called synovial joint, with each type providing a different amount and pattern of movement. Pattern of movement is determined by the shape of the articulating surfaces for bones that are meeting at an articulation.(Knudson, 2007) The amount of movement allowed because of the structure of the ligaments that surround the joint that limit the total amount of movement possible at any given articulation along with the lines of pull of the muscles on the bones that form the joint.
Additionally, there is a distinct class of articulations known as dynamic articulations. The dynamic articulations are seen primarily within ball and socket joints (especially the glenohumeral joints). These joints form due to interaction of capsular ligaments with the tendons of the rotator muscles of the joint. Provides the ability to have changing levels of tension and capsular stability via the interaction between ligamentous and tendinous units. That occurs by changes in tension about the central axis of the capsular ligament and thus modifies the degree of motion that can be obtained throughout the entire range of motion of the articulation.

Types of Articulations:

1. Obtain bones, skeleton, articulation models, stickers and felt-tip marker
2. Write the names for the types and classifications of articulations on the stickers.
3. Working with your group (and using your colored images) identify the various types of articulations of the body by type and classification.
4. Taking turns within your group, label the articulations based on being fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial and then as being synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis or diarthrosis.
5. Have your work checked by the instructor and then move to activity 2.

Classification of Articulations

1a Fibrous (Synarthrosis)

1b Fibrous (Amphiarthrosis)

2 Cartilaginous (Amphiarthrosis)

3 Synovial

3a Articulating Bones

3b Anterior Synovial Membrane

3c Synovial Fluid

3d Tendon

3e Bursa Sacs

3f Articulating Cartilage

3g Meniscus

3h Posterior Synovial Membrane

3i Sub-patellar Bursa Sac

3j Cruciate Ligament

Color each joint a different color for use as a reference when identifying on your skeleton

Types of Synovial Joints

1. Ball and Socket 2. Hinge 3. Saddle

4. Condylar (Ellipsoid) 5. Pivot 6. Planar (Gliding)

Color each synovial joint a different color for use as a reference when identifying on your skeleton

Lines of Pull and Movements:

Lines of pull of the description of movements that can be generated by a muscle contraction. These lines of pull are based on the origin and insertion of the muscle, the anatomical location of the muscle as it crosses the articulation that is being moved and the anatomical shape of the articulation. For most of the articulations of the body, these motions will occur in the coronal or sagittal planes, however there are special movements that occur in the transverse plane. These movements are generally referred to as being horizontal movements of the appendage.
These lines of pull will be described by defined antagonistic pairs (pairs of movements that perform the opposite of each other) of movements at the joint. Most of movements will result in a paired movement patterning between agonistic muscles (muscles that allow for motion in the direction that is desired) and antagonistic muscles (muscles that allow for motion in the opposite direction to the desired direction). The agonistic muscle also will involve muscles that are furthered described as being primary or accessory to the movement. Where the primary movers are those muscles that will produce the majority of the active force needed for the movement to occur and the accessory muscles will either provide a limited amount of force to the movement or will stabilize the articulation within the pattern of movement.
The movements include:

Flexion: movement of the extremity toward the torso/thorax
Extension: movement of the extremity away from the torso/thorax
Abduction: movement away from the mid-line of the body
Adduction: movement toward the mid-line of the body
Rotation: movement around the central axis of the body or extremity
Circumduction: movement of the arm through all three anatomical planes
Deviation: movement of the hand and wrist toward the radius or the ulna
Supination: rotating hand and wrist, or foot and ankle, so that palm of hand, or sole of foot, is facing anterior (as is holding a bowl of soup)
Pronation: rotating hand and wrist, or foot and ankle, so that palm of hand, or sole of foot, is facing posterior
Vertebral/Trunk Rotation: rotating of the vertebral column (or segments of the vertebral column) about the central long axis of the body
Inversion: rotation of the foot and ankle, medially and superiorly
Eversion: rotation of the foot and ankle laterally and inferiorly
Plantarflexion: movement of the toes and foot (and ankle) toward the ground (away from the leg)
Dorsiflexion: movement of the toes and foot (and ankle) toward the anterior leg (away from the ground)
Horizontal Adduction: movement of the appendage in an abducted position toward the mid-line of the body
Horizontal Abduction: movement of the appendage in an abducted position away the mid-line of the body

1. Using the following articulations, take turns within your group to mimic the movements that would be allowed at the articulation. As you perform the movement, have one person in your group indicate a muscle that would allow the movement to occur.

a. Shoulder (Glenohumeral)
b. Elbow (Humeroulnar)
c. Forearm (Proximal and Distal Radioulnar)
d. Wrist (Radiocarpal)
e. Head and Neck (Atlooccipital)
f. Head and Neck (Atloaxial)
g. Vertebral
h. Hip (Femoroacetabular)
i. Knee (Tibiofemoral)
j. Ankle (Tibiotalar)

Patterns of Movement and Kinematic Chain:

Kinematics is the description of the movements of the bones at the joints (articulations) that allow for locomotion (movement) to occur either within the limb or body segment or the body as a whole. There are two distinct features that we must remember, and both relate to what is called the kinematic chain. Kinematic chain is the linking of the articulations of the body that leads to the desired movement. In the kinematic chain you can either have an open chain or a closed chain. The open chain is where the distal (terminal) end of the chain is free to move and the proximal (initial) segment of the chain is fixed. While a closed chain will have both the distal (terminal) end and the proximal (initial) segment of the chain are fixed.
The motion that is allowed by the articulations interactions with the muscles follows the physical principles of levers. Based on where the muscles insert on the bone, three basic lever systems are developed all of which provides a level of mechanical advantage to the articulation allowing for movement to occur. In addition to the lever system, the arrangement of tendinous insertion and pennation of the muscle fascicles (fibers) within the muscle gaster summate to determine the overall mechanical advantage that each articulation provides for the kinematics of movement for the body.

The first-class (type 1) lever system is the simplest of the lever system. In can be thought of as a teeter-tooter where the muscle pull is on the opposite side of the joint from the resistance placed on the joint. This type of lever is seen at the Atlooccipital (between CV1 and the Occipital bone of the cranium) articulation.

The second-class (type 2) lever system is more readily seen, but slightly more complex than, the type-1 lever for the human body. The system has the muscle pull is on the same side of the joint as the resistance placed on the joint but will have the resistance placed on the joint falls between the joint moving and muscle pull causing the movement, similar to the action of using a nutcracker. This type of lever is seen at the Tibiotalar and Talofibular (ankle) articulation.

The third-class (type 3) lever system is the most complex system used in the body. It typically seen in articulation that has a moveable pivot point for the fulcrum. This is necessary to provide the maximal mechanical advantage from the lever, as the muscle pull will be closer to the fulcrum than the resistance on the same side of the joint. This lever is similar to the action of using a shovel and is seen at the Humeroulnar (elbow) articulation.

2. As you perform the movements, as a group determine the type of lever system being used and if the movement is an open chain or a closed chain pattern of movement

a. Shoulder (Glenohumeral)

i. Lever system:
ii. Movement:
iii. Kinematic Chain:

b. Elbow (Humeroulnar)

i. Kinematic Chain:

c. Forearm (Proximal and Distal Radioulnar)

i. Kinematic Chain:

d. Wrist (Radiocarpal)

i. Kinematic Chain:

e. Head and Neck (Atlooccipital)

i. Kinematic Chain:

f. Head and Neck (Atloaxial)

i. Kinematic Chain:

g. Vertebral

i. Kinematic Chain:

h. Hip (Femoroacetabular)

i. Kinematic Chain:

i. Knee (Tibiofemoral)

i. Kinematic Chain:

j. Ankle (Tibiotalar)

i. Kinematic Chain:

3. Have your instructor check your answers and then clean up your lab area.


The bony pelvis consists of the two hip bones (also known as innominate or pelvic bones), the sacrum and the coccyx.

There are four articulations within the pelvis:

  • Sacroiliac joints (x2) – between the ilium of the hip bones, and the sacrum
  • Sacrococcygeal symphysis – between the sacrum and the coccyx.
  • Pubic symphysis – between the pubis bodies of the two hip bones.

Ligaments attach the lateral border of the sacrum to various bony landmarks on the bony pelvis to aid stability.

Fig 1 – The pelvic girdle is formed by the hip bones, sacrum and coccyx.


Flexion and Extension

Flexion and extension are movements that occur in the sagittal plane. They refer to increasing and decreasing the angle between two body parts:

Flexion refers to a movement that decreases the angle between two body parts. Flexion at the elbow is decreasing the angle between the ulna and the humerus. When the knee flexes, the ankle moves closer to the buttock, and the angle between the femur and tibia gets smaller.

Extension refers to a movement that increases the angle between two body parts. Extension at the elbow is increasing the angle between the ulna and the humerus. Extension of the knee straightens the lower limb.

Fig 1 – Flexion and extension.


Tissues

When cells of a certain type are grouped together, the resulting structure is called tissue. There is muscle tissue, which is made of strands of muscle cells. Adipose tissue is one layer of skin made of fat cells. Connective tissue is a term used for various types of tough, fibrous matter like tendons or ligaments.

Most of the time in first aid, we refer to tissues more than cells. Cells are typically microscopic, while tissues can be seen and manipulated. When you look at a laceration to determine if it needs stitches, you are looking for adipose tissue in the wound. Indeed, stitches hold together the tissue, not the individual cells.


Each breast contains 15 to 20 lobes. These glands contain clusters of lobules, which produce breast milk. Each lobe has 20-40 lobules.

Conditions that affect the lobes

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 10% to 15% of breast cancers. ILC starts in the breast’s lobules and invades surrounding tissue. ILC can manifest as a thick or full area that feels different than the rest of the breast.

Noncancerous conditions that can affect the lobes and lobules are lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH). These are called neoplasias and consist of abnormal cells. Though neoplasias are not cancerous themselves, having them raises your risk of breast cancer in the future.

Glandular tissue includes the lobules, which produce breast milk, and ducts, the tubes that carry milk to the nipple.


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29. The illustrated atlas of the human body [2008]

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30. Anatomy & physiology : the unity of form and function [2018]

  • Part One Organization of the Body 1 Major Themes of Anatomy and PhysiologyATLAS A General Orientation to Human Anatomy 2 The Chemistry of Life 3 Cellular Form and Function 4 Genetics of Cellular Function 5 Histology Part Two Support and Movement 6 The Integumentary System 7 Bone Tissue 8 The Skeletal System 9 Joints 10 The Muscular SystemATLAS B Regional and Surface Anatomy
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31. Structure & function of the body [2016]

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32. Essentials of anatomy & physiology [2014]

  • Chapter 1 The Study of Anatomy and Physiology 1.1 Anatomy-The Structural Basis of Human Function 1.2 Physiology-The Functional Relevance of Human Structure 1.3 The Human Body Plan 1.4 The Language of Medicine
  • Chapter 2 Life, Matter, and Energy 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules 2.2 Water, Mixtures, and pH 2.3 Organic Compounds 2.4 Energy and Chemical Reactions
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  • Chapter 12 The Circulatory System I-Blood 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Erythrocytes 12.3 Leukocytes 12.4 Platelets
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  • Chapter 20 Human Development and Aging 20.1 Fertilization and Preembryonic Development 20.2 The Embryonic and Fetal Stages 20.3 The Neonate 20.4 Aging, Senescence, and Death Appendix A: Answer Key Appendix B: Health Science Careers Appendix C: Symbols, Weights, and Measures Appendix D: Biomedical Word Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes Glossary.
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33. Structure & function of the body [2012]

  • 1. An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Body
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34. Report of the Task Group on Reference Man : a report [1975]

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35. Anatomy & physiology : with integrated study guide [2013]

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36. Examination questions and answers in basic anatomy and physiology : 2900 multiple choice questions and 64 essay topics [2020]

  • Contents
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  • Some thoughts on the marking of MCQ tests (Where there are 4 choices of answer, one of which is the best correct)
  • Bibliography
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  • 1
  • Organisation of the Body
  • 2
  • Cells and Tissues
  • 2.1
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  • 9
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  • 9.1
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  • 10 Endocrine System
  • 10.1
  • Endocrine System and Hormones in General
  • 10.2
  • Hypothalamus and Pituitary
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  • Organs and Their Hormones
  • 10.3.1 Adrenals
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  • 11
  • Renal System
  • 11.1
  • Renal Anatomy
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  • Renal Physiology
  • 11.3
  • Hormones Affecting the Renal System (angiotensin, renin, aldosterone, ADH, ANP)
  • 12
  • Cardiovascular System
  • 12.1 Blood
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  • 12.2.1 Heart Anatomy and Physiology
  • 12.2.2 ECG
  • 12.3 Blood Vessels
  • 12.4 Pressure: The Physics of Pressure
  • 12.5 Pressure Applied to the Cardiovascular System
  • 12.6 Blood Pressure and its Control
  • 13
  • Respiratory System
  • 13.1 Anatomy and Physiology
  • 13.2 Pressure Applied to the Respiratory System
  • 14
  • Nervous System
  • 14.1 Cells and Action Potential
  • 14.2 Brain and Spinal Cord Anatomy
  • 14.3 Autonomic Nervous System, Neurotransmitters, Reflexes
  • 14.4 Special Senses (Eye & Ear)
  • 14.4.1
  • Eye
  • 14.4.2
  • Ear
  • 15 Reproductive System
  • 15.1 Reproductive Anatomy
  • 15.2 Reproductive Physiology
  • 15.3 Chromosomes and genetics
  • 16 Waves, Light Waves, Sound Waves, Ultrasound (the physics of)
  • 16.1 Waves
  • 16.2 Light Waves
  • 16.3 Sound
  • 16.4 Ultrasound
  • 17 Ionising Radiation
  • 17.1 Medical Imaging With X-Radiation
  • 17.2 Radioactivity, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Safety
  • 18 Electricity
  • 19 Biomechanics
  • 20 Body Temperature, Energy and Heat Loss
  • 21
  • 64 Essay topics for a written assignment assessment in Anatomy & Physiology
  • Challenging essay topics
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37. Sinu keha [1993]

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38. Anatomy and physiology laboratory manual [2013]

  • Tortora, Gerard J.
  • Seventh edition, update / Robert J. Amitrano, Bergen Community College, Gerard J. Tortora, Bergen Community College. - Belmont, CA : Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning, [2013]
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39. Update : laboratory exercises in anatomy and physiology with cat dissections [2013]

  • Laboratory Safety. Commonly Used Laboratory Equipment. Pronunciation Key. EXERCISE
  • 1. Microscopy. A. Compound Light Microscope. EXERCISE
  • 2. Introduction to the Human Body. A. Anatomy and Physiology. B. Levels of Body Organization. C. Systems of the Body. D. Life Processes. E. Homeostasis. F. Anatomical Position and Regional Names. G. External Features of the Body. H. Directional Terms. I. Planes of the Body. J. Body Cavities. K. Abdominopelvic Regions. L. Abdominopelvic Quadrants. M. Dissection of White Rat. EXERCISE
  • 3. Cells. A. Cell Parts. B. Organelles. C. Diversity of Cells. D. Movement of Substances Across and Through Plasma Membranes. E. Extracellular Materials. F. Cell Division. EXERCISE
  • 4. Tissues A. Epithelial Tissue B. Connective Tissue. C. Membranes. EXERCISE
  • 5. Integumentary System. A. Skin. B. Hair. C. Glands. D. Nails. E. Homeostasis of Body Temperature. EXERCISE
  • 6. Bone Tissue. A. Functions of Bone. B. Structure of a Long Bone. C. Histology of Bone. D. Chemistry of Bone. E. Bone Formation: Ossification. F. Bone Growth. G. Fractures. H. Types of Bones. I. Bone Surface Markings. EXERCISE
  • 7. Bones. A. Bones of Adult Skull. B. Sutures of Skull. C. Fontanels of Skull. D. Paranasal Sinuses of Skull. E. Vertebral Column. F. Vertebrae. G. Sternum and Ribs. H. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdles. I. Upper Limbs. J. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle. K. Lower Limbs. L. Articulated Skeleton. M. Skeletal System of Cat. EXERCISE
  • 8. Joints. A. Kinds of Joints. B. Fibrous Joints. C. Cartilaginous Joints. D. Synovial Joints. E. Knee Joint. F. Principal Joints of the Body. EXERCISE
  • 9. Muscular Tissue. A. Types of Muscular Tissue. B. Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tissue. C. Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Tissue. D. Laboratory Tests on Skeletal Muscle Contraction. E. Biochemistry of Skeletal Muscle Contraction. F. Electromyography. G. Cardiac Muscle Tissue. H. Smooth Muscle Tissue EXERCISE 10 Muscular System A. How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement. B. Arrangement of Fascicles. C. Naming Skeletal Muscles. D. Connective Tissue Components. E. Principal Skeletal Muscles. F. Composite Muscular System. G. Dissection of Cat Muscular System. EXERCISE 11 Surface Anatomy A. Head. B. Neck. C. Trunk. D. Upper Limb (Extremity). E. Lower Limb (Extremity). EXERCISE
  • 12. Nervous Tissue. A. Nervous System Divisions. B. Histology of Nervous Tissue. C. Histology of Neuroglia. D. Neuronal Circuits. E. Reflex Arc. F. Demonstration of Reflex Arc. EXERCISE
  • 13. Nervous System. A. Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves. B. Brain. C. Cranial Nerves: Names and Components. D. Tests of Cranial Nerve Function. E. Dissection of Nervous System. F. Autonomic Nervous System. EXERCISE
  • 14. Sensory Receptors and Sensory and Motor Pathways. A. Characteristics of Sensations. B. Classification of Receptors. C. Receptors for Somatic Senses. D. Tests for Somatic Senses. E. Somatic Sensory Pathways. F. Olfaction. G. Gustation. H. Vision. I. Hearing and Equilibrium. J. Sensory-Motor Integration. K. Somatic Motor Pathways. EXERCISE
  • 15. Endocrine System. A. Endocrine Glands. B. Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis). C. Thyroid Gland. D. Parathyroid Glands. E. Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glandx. F. Pancreatic Islets. G. Testes. H. Ovaries. I. Pineal Gland. J. Thymus Gland. K. Other Endocrine Tissues. EXERCISE
  • 16. Blood. A. Components and Origin of Blood. B. Plasma. C. Red Blood Cells. D. Red Blood Cell Tests. E. White Blood Cells. F. White Blood Cell Tests. G. Platelets. H. Drawings of Blood Cells. I. Blood Grouping (Typing). EXERCISE
  • 17. Heart. A. Location and Surface Projection of Heart. B. Pericardium. C. Heart Wall. D. Chambers and Great Vessels of Heart. E. Valves of Heart. F. Blood Supply of Heart. G. Dissection of Sheep Heart. EXERCISE
  • 18. Blood Vessels. A. Arteries and Arterioles. B. Capillaries. C. Venules and Veins. D. Circulatory Routes. E. Blood Vessel Exercise. F. Dissection of Cat Cardiovascular System. EXERCISE
  • 19. Cardiovascular Physiology. A. Cardiac Conduction System and Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). B. Cardiac Cycle. C. Cardiac Cycle Experiments. D. Heart Sounds. E. Pulse Rate. F. Blood Pressure (Auscultation Method). EXERCISE
  • 20. Lymphatic and Immune System. A. Lymphatic Vessels. B. Lymphatic Tissues. C. Lymph Circulation. D. Dissection of Cat Lymphatic System. EXERCISE
  • 21. Respiratory System. A. Organs of the Respiratory System. B. Dissection of Cat Respiratory System. C. Dissection of Sheep Pluck. D. Laboratory Tests on Respiration. E. Laboratory Tests Combining Respiratory and Cardiovascular Interactions. EXERCISE
  • 22. Digestive System. A. General Organization of Digestive System. B. Organs of Digestive System. C. Dissection of Cat Digestive System. D. Deglutition. E. Observation of Movements of the Gastrointestinal Tract. F. Physiology of Intestinal Smooth Muscle. G. Chemistry of Digestion. EXERCISE
  • 23. Urinary System. A. Organs of Urinary System. B. Dissection of Cat Urinary System. C. Dissection of Sheep (or Pig) Kidney. D. Urine. E. Urinalysis. EXERCISE
  • 24. pH and Acid-Base Balance. A. The Concept of pH. B. Measuring pH. C. Acid-Base Balance. D. Acid-Base Imbalances. EXERCISE
  • 25. Reproductive Systems. A. Organs of Male Reproductive System. B. Organs of Female Reproductive System. C. Dissection of Cat Reproductive Systems. D. Dissection of Fetus-Containing Pig Uterus. EXERCISE
  • 26. Development. A. Spermatogenesis. B. Oogenesis. C. Embyronic Period. D. Fetal Period. Appendix A: Some Important Units of Measurement. Appendix B: Periodic Table of the Elements. Appendix C: Eponyms Used in This Laboratory Manual. Figure Credits. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Status of items at Science Library (Li and Ma)
Science Library (Li and Ma) Status
Stacks Request (opens in new tab)
QP44 .T67 2013 Unknown

40. Laboratory manual for anatomy & physiology [2011]

  • I. HUMAN BODY AND ORIENTATION
  • 1. The Language of Anatomy
  • 2. Organ Systems Overview II. THE CELL
  • 3. The Cell - Anatomy and Division
  • 4. Cell Membrane Transport Mechanisms III. BASIC TISSUES AND THE SKIN
  • 5. Classification of Tissues
  • 6. The Skin (Integumentary System) IV. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • 7. Overview of the Skeleton
  • 8. The Axial Skeleton
  • 9. The Appendicular Skeleton
  • 10. Microscopic Anatomy and Organization of Skeletal Muscle V. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
  • 11. Structure of Skeletal Muscle
  • 12. Gross Anatomy of the Muscular System VI. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 13. Neuron Anatomy and Physiology
  • 14. Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves
  • 15. Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
  • 16. Human Reflex Physiology
  • 17. The Special Senses
  • 18. Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands VII. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • 19. Blood
  • 20. Anatomy of the Heart
  • 21. Anatomy of Blood Vessels
  • 22. Human Cardiovascular Physiology-Blood Pressure and Pulse Determinations VIII. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • 23. Anatomy of the Respiratory System
  • 24. Respiratory System Physiology IX. OTHER MAJOR SYSTEMS
  • 25. Functional Anatomy of the Digestive System
  • 26. Functional Anatomy of the Urinary System
  • 27. Anatomy of the Reproductive System Histology Atlas Appendix A: The Microscope Appendix B: The Metric System.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)
Status of items at SAL3 (off-campus storage)
SAL3 (off-campus storage) Status
Stacks Request (opens in new tab)
QP44 .M344 2011 Available

41. Carrying the heart : exploring the worlds within us [2009]

  • Digestive
  • Scatology
  • Respiratory
  • Reproductive
  • Cardiovascular.
Status of items at Green Library
Green Library Status
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QP38 .G657 2009 Unknown

42. Anatomy and physiology laboratory manual [1998]

  • Laboratory Safety. Selected Laboratory Safety Signs/Labels. Commonly Used Laboratory Equipment. Pronunciation Key.
  • 1. Microscopy.
  • 2. Introduction to the Human Body.
  • 3. Cells.
  • 4. Tissues.
  • 5. Integumentary System.
  • 6. Bone Tissue.
  • 7. Bones.
  • 8. Articulations.
  • 9. Muscle Tissue.
  • 10. Skeletal Muscles.
  • 11. Surface Anatomy.
  • 12. Nervous Tissue.
  • 13. Nervous System.
  • 14. General Senses and Sensory and Motor Pathways.
  • 15. Special Senses.
  • 16. Endocrine System.
  • 17. Blood.
  • 18. Heart.
  • 19. Blood Vessels.
  • 20. Cardiovascular Physiology.
  • 21. Lymphatic System.
  • 22. Respiratory System.
  • 23. Digestive System.
  • 24. Urinary System.
  • 25. pH and Acid-Base Balance.
  • 26. Reproductive Systems.
  • 27. Development.
  • 28. Genetics. Appendix A: Some Important Units of Measurement. Appendix B: Periodic Table of the Elements. Appendix C: Eponyms Used in this Laboratory Manual. Figure Credits. Index.
  • (source: Nielsen Book Data)

Available to students, faculty, and staff, by special arrangement in response to COVID-19. To protect our access to ETAS, the physical copy is temporarily not requestable.


Watch the video: Anatomical Planes u0026 Axes Explained (November 2021).